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НазваIvan Pulyui (реферат)
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РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Реферат на тему:

 

IVAN PULYUI

 

In 1995 Ukraine and progressive people of the world marked the 150th

anniversary of a distinguished Ukrainian scientist Ivan Pulyui. He was

born in 1845 under the sign of Aquarius. He was bound to become a

lively, capable, friendly, witty, modest, uncompromising person. Usually

gifted inventors grow out of the Aquarius but very often they are unable

to use their inventions properly.

 

I. Pulyui was born in a small town of Grimailiv, Scalat district,

Ternopil region. His father was a noted townsman, later he'was appointed

a mayor of the town. Their family was a Ukrainian one, in which the

native ,tongue was highly honoured. At the age of 6 Ivan was sent to

school where, he studied eagerly and with ease. Having read all the

books written in Ukrainian, which were at his disposal, he started

borrowing Polish and Russian books. Studying at the Ternopil classic

school (gymnasium), he took a considerable interest in physics,

mathematics, astronomy. Every day he covered the distance of 10 km to

get to gymnasium from which he graduated with honours.

 

Following his parents' advice he entered the theological department of

the Vienna University. The way to Vienna passed through Lviv, Krakiv,

Prague for almost 1,5 thousand km. It took him nearly a month to get

there on foot practically. He fed himself mostly on bread and water.

Studying theology, he simultaneously attended the lectures on physics,

mathematics. But he gave up the idea of becoming a priest. That made his

father very angry and he repudiated his son. He earned for his living by

teaching. It took a great deal of his free time but it could not be

helped. His greatest assistant was his strong will and persistance, his

loyalty to his principles. His ardent desire was to teach in Lviv or

Kiyiv, where he could give deep knowledge to his countrymen. But Russian

gendarmes interfered with his plans. He was listed as untrustworthy,

unreliable. While studying at the department of phylosophy in Vienna

Pulyui published his scientific paper on astromony "About Immovable

Stars and Planets". It aroused great irritation of Russian authorities.

He was accused of encroaching upon the basis of the Russian monarchy. He

was considered to be a leader of masses who might provoke the coup in

Russia. The police searched his apartment, and in a year returned his

works together with apologies.

 

He spent long hours in laboratory, devoting himself completely to

science. Then he moved to Khorvatia where he taught physics and

mathematics at the naval academy. He lived a very poor life there,

saving every- penny. In autumn 1875 he arrived in Germany. At the

ancient Strasburg University he took up teaching electromechanics. The

University enjoyed great popularity with the Ukrainian Students. The

last Ukrainian hetman Kirilo Rozumovsky studied there. In 2 years

Pullyui came back to Vienna. He was given a warm welcome as a well-known

professor of philosophy, physics and mathematics. Pulyui worked

additionally at the Budapest company "Gantz" which had its branch in

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