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НазваPolitical system of USA (реферат)
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Тип документуРеферат
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Political system of USA


The Us Constitution defines a federal systems of government in which
certain powers are delegated to the national government; other powers
fall to the states. The national government consists of executive,
legislative, and judicial branches that are designed to check and
balance one another; all are interrelated and overlapping, yet each is
quite distinct.

The American Constitution is based on the doctrine of the separation of
powers between the executive, legislative and judiciary. The main text
of the Constitution comprises seven articles.

Article I vests all legislative powers in the Congress- the House of
Representatives and the Senate. Among those powers are the right to levy
taxes, borrow money, regulate interstate commerce, provide for military
forces, declare war, and determine member seating and rules of
procedure. The House initiates impeachment proceedings, and the Senate
adjudicates them.

Article II vests executive power in the president. The president’s
formal responsibilities include those of chief executive,
commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and treaty maker (two-thirds of
the Senate must concur). The powers of appointment of the president are
vast but are subjected to the “advice and consent” (majority approval)
of the Senate (Article II, section 2). The informal responsibilities of
the president have grown to embrace political leadership, including
proposing legislation to Congress.

Article III places judicial power in the hands of the courts. The
Constitution is interpreted by the courts, and the Supreme Court of the
United States is the final court of appeal from the state and lower
federal courts. The power of Us courts to rule on the constitutionality
of laws is known as judicial review. Few courts in the world have that
extraordinary power, which is not explicitly mentioned in the

The Presidency, Congress and the Courts were given limited and specific
powers; and a series of checks and balances, whereby each branch of
government has certain authority over the others, were also included to
make sure these powers were not abused. Government power was further
limited by means of a dual system of government, in which the federal
government was only given the powers and responsibilities to deal with
problems facing the nation as a whole (foreign affairs, trade, control
of the army and navy, ets.). The remaining responsibilities and duties
of government were reserved to the individual state governments. The
governments of the 50 states have structures closely paralleling those
of the federal government. Each state has a governor, a legislature, and
a judiciary. Each state has its own constitution.

Since the Constitution was ratified in 1788, there have been 26
amendments to it. The first 10, known as the Bill of Rights, established
a number of individual liberties. Among them are the freedom of
religion, speech, and the press, the right of peaceful assembly, and the
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