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НазваPolitical system of USA (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Political system of USA




The Us Constitution defines a federal systems of government in which

certain powers are delegated to the national government; other powers

fall to the states. The national government consists of executive,

legislative, and judicial branches that are designed to check and

balance one another; all are interrelated and overlapping, yet each is

quite distinct.


The American Constitution is based on the doctrine of the separation of

powers between the executive, legislative and judiciary. The main text

of the Constitution comprises seven articles.


Article I vests all legislative powers in the Congress- the House of

Representatives and the Senate. Among those powers are the right to levy

taxes, borrow money, regulate interstate commerce, provide for military

forces, declare war, and determine member seating and rules of

procedure. The House initiates impeachment proceedings, and the Senate

adjudicates them.


Article II vests executive power in the president. The president’s

formal responsibilities include those of chief executive,

commander-in-chief of the armed forces, and treaty maker (two-thirds of

the Senate must concur). The powers of appointment of the president are

vast but are subjected to the “advice and consent” (majority approval)

of the Senate (Article II, section 2). The informal responsibilities of

the president have grown to embrace political leadership, including

proposing legislation to Congress.


Article III places judicial power in the hands of the courts. The

Constitution is interpreted by the courts, and the Supreme Court of the

United States is the final court of appeal from the state and lower

federal courts. The power of Us courts to rule on the constitutionality

of laws is known as judicial review. Few courts in the world have that

extraordinary power, which is not explicitly mentioned in the



The Presidency, Congress and the Courts were given limited and specific

powers; and a series of checks and balances, whereby each branch of

government has certain authority over the others, were also included to

make sure these powers were not abused. Government power was further

limited by means of a dual system of government, in which the federal

government was only given the powers and responsibilities to deal with

problems facing the nation as a whole (foreign affairs, trade, control

of the army and navy, ets.). The remaining responsibilities and duties

of government were reserved to the individual state governments. The

governments of the 50 states have structures closely paralleling those

of the federal government. Each state has a governor, a legislature, and

a judiciary. Each state has its own constitution.


Since the Constitution was ratified in 1788, there have been 26

amendments to it. The first 10, known as the Bill of Rights, established

a number of individual liberties. Among them are the freedom of

religion, speech, and the press, the right of peaceful assembly, and the

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