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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваMachine Translation: Past, Present and Future (курсова)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуКурсова
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“Machine Translation: Past, Present and Future”



Machine Translation: The First 40 Years, 1949-1989

Machine Translation in 1990s

Machine Translation Quality

Machine Translation and Internet

Machine and Human Translation

Concluding remarks

Literature used


Now it is time to analyze what has happened in the 50 years since
machine translation began, review the present situation, and speculate
on what the future may bring. Progress in the basic processes of
computerized translation has not been as striking as developments in
computer technology and software. There is still much scope for the
improvement of the linguistic quality of machine translation output,
which hopefully developments in both rule-based and corpus-based methods
can bring. Greater impact on the future machine translation scenario
will probably come from the expected huge increase in demand for on-line
real-time communication in many languages, where quality may be less
important than accessibility and usability.

Machine Translation: The First 40 Years, 1949-1989

About fifty years ago, Warren Weaver, a former director of the division
of natural sciences at the Rockefeller Institute (1932-55), wrote his
famous memorandum which had launched research on machine translation at
first primarily in the United States but before the end of the 1950s
throughout the world.

In those early days and for many years afterwards, computers were quite
different from those that we have today. They were very expensive
machines disposed in large rooms with reinforced flooring and
ventilation systems to reduce excess heat. They required a huge number
of maintenance engineers and a dedicated staff of operators and
programmers. Most of the work was mathematical in fact, either directly
for military institutions or for university departments of physics and
applied mathematics with strong links to the armed forces. It was
perhaps natural in these circumstances that much of the earliest work on
machine translation was supported by military or intelligence funds
directly or indirectly, and was destined for usage by such organizations
– hence the emphasis in the United States on Russian-to-English
translation, and in the Soviet Union on English-to-Russian translation.

Although machine translation attracted a great deal of funding in the
1950s and 1960s, particularly when the arms and space races began in
earnest after the launch of the first satellite in 1957, and the first
space flight by Gagarin in 1961, the results of this period of activity
were disappointing. US was even going to close the research after the
publication of the shattering ALPAC (Automatic Language Processing
Advisory Committee) report (1966) which concluded that the United States
had no need of machine translation even if the prospect of reasonable
translations were realistic – which then seemed unlikely. The authors of
the report had compared unfavourably the quality of the output produced
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