найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

Всього в базі: 75883
останнє поновлення: 2016-12-30
за 7 днів додано 0

Реферати на українській
Реферати на російській
Українські підручники

$ Робота на замовлення
Реклама на сайті
Зворотній зв'язок



реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваMachine Translation: Past, Present and Future (курсова)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуКурсова
Замовити оригінальну роботу

Курсова робота


“Machine Translation: Past, Present and Future”






Machine Translation: The First 40 Years, 1949-1989


Machine Translation in 1990s


Machine Translation Quality


Machine Translation and Internet


Machine and Human Translation


Concluding remarks


Literature used




Now it is time to analyze what has happened in the 50 years since

machine translation began, review the present situation, and speculate

on what the future may bring. Progress in the basic processes of

computerized translation has not been as striking as developments in

computer technology and software. There is still much scope for the

improvement of the linguistic quality of machine translation output,

which hopefully developments in both rule-based and corpus-based methods

can bring. Greater impact on the future machine translation scenario

will probably come from the expected huge increase in demand for on-line

real-time communication in many languages, where quality may be less

important than accessibility and usability.


Machine Translation: The First 40 Years, 1949-1989


About fifty years ago, Warren Weaver, a former director of the division

of natural sciences at the Rockefeller Institute (1932-55), wrote his

famous memorandum which had launched research on machine translation at

first primarily in the United States but before the end of the 1950s

throughout the world.


In those early days and for many years afterwards, computers were quite

different from those that we have today. They were very expensive

machines disposed in large rooms with reinforced flooring and

ventilation systems to reduce excess heat. They required a huge number

of maintenance engineers and a dedicated staff of operators and

programmers. Most of the work was mathematical in fact, either directly

for military institutions or for university departments of physics and

applied mathematics with strong links to the armed forces. It was

perhaps natural in these circumstances that much of the earliest work on

machine translation was supported by military or intelligence funds

directly or indirectly, and was destined for usage by such organizations

– hence the emphasis in the United States on Russian-to-English

translation, and in the Soviet Union on English-to-Russian translation.


Although machine translation attracted a great deal of funding in the

1950s and 1960s, particularly when the arms and space races began in

earnest after the launch of the first satellite in 1957, and the first

space flight by Gagarin in 1961, the results of this period of activity

were disappointing. US was even going to close the research after the

publication of the shattering ALPAC (Automatic Language Processing

Advisory Committee) report (1966) which concluded that the United States

had no need of machine translation even if the prospect of reasonable

translations were realistic – which then seemed unlikely. The authors of

the report had compared unfavourably the quality of the output produced

-----> Page:

0 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9]