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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваWriting for television and the editorial influence (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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On theme:


Writing for television and the editorial influence




The major problem facing any writer coming fresh to television is to

understand what it is. Is it a new art medium or merely a new method of

disseminating information? Is it simply an extension of radio, or is it

just an inferior form of cinema? These are basic questions which require

an answer. Before dealing with them, however, I would like to set down

the three main problems which, in my belief, face any writer, new to

television. They are:


(1) The problem, already mentioned, of understanding the nature of

the medium


(2)The problems of time and space encountered in const rusting the



(3)The problem of lay-out of the script.


Now to deal with these in order. Perhaps the best way 1o start on the

first is to compare television with other media and' to plot its

affinities and contrasts.


Like radio, it is broadcast to a mass-audience grouped in small numbers;

it forms part of a daily service; it may be produced inside the studio,

outside it, or both; and each programme is consumed in one performance,

or a small number of performances. Like the film, it employs cameras and

the action is seen through lens; it is viewed on a screen; it employs

simultaneously sound and vision; it employs grammatical devices such as

the mix and the fade. Like the theatre it is a live medium; its actors

or actualities give a continuous performance.


Now for the points of divergence. Unlike radio, television, must bow to

the exacting demands of vision as well as sound. Unlike the film it is

principally a live, as opposed to a recorded, medium — although this may

change with time; its action has only relative mobility. Unlike the

stage play, its action can move swiftly from set to set; it plays to

small intimate groups of people at short range.


From this brief analysis it should be apparent that, although television

draws characteristics from these media, it can by no means be identified

with any one of them. It has too many affinities with the film merely to

be an extension of sound radio; it has too much of radio and the theatre

merely to be an inferior form of cinema. It is a new and exciting medium

in its own right. It is not even an alternative to the theatre or the

cinema; it is rather a window on the world, a magic window through which

can be seen passing all the sights and sounds and people of the day.

Maurice Wiggin, the television critic, once called television "a

periscope through which we can see how the world wags". This seems to me

a definition it would be hard to better.


When I said that television was a live medium I was, of course, quite

aware that it does employ both recorded sound. (on disc or tape) and

recorded vision (on film). Most plays and documentaries use linking

filmed sequences and some types of programme use a high proportion of

film. When this happens television takes on temporarily the

characteristics of a recorded medium, though its real nature remains the

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