найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

Всього в базі: 75760
останнє поновлення: 2016-10-20
за 7 днів додано 5

Реферати на українській
Реферати на російській
Українські підручники

$ Робота на замовлення
Реклама на сайті
Зворотній зв'язок


реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваWhat’s the EU (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
Замовити оригінальну роботу
Реферат на тему:

What’s the EU

1. What’s the EU

1.1 Beginnings: war and peace 

   For centuries, Europe was the scene of frequent and bloody wars. In
the period 1870 to 1945, France and Germany fought each other three
times, with terrible loss of life. A number of European leaders became
convinced that the only way to secure a lasting peace between their
countries was to unite them economically and politically.

   So, in 1950, the French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman proposed
integrating the coal and steel industries of Western Europe. A a result,
in 1951, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was set up, with
six members: Belgium, West Germany, Luxembourg, France, Italy and the
Netherlands. The power to take decisions about the coal and steel
industry in these countries was placed in the hands of an independent,
supranational body called the "High Authority". Jean Monnet was its
first President.

1.2 From three communities to the European Union  

   The ECSC was such a success that, within a few years, these same six
countries decided to go further and integrate other sectors of their
economies. In 1957 they signed the Treaties of Rome, creating the
European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM) and the European Economic
Community (EEC). The member states set about removing trade barriers
between them and forming a "common market".

   In 1967 the institutions of the three European communities were
merged. From this point on, there was a single Commission and a single
Council of Ministers as well as the European Parliament.

   Originally, the members of the European Parliament were chosen by the
national parliaments but in 1979 the first direct elections were held,
allowing the citizens of the member states to vote for the candidate of
their choice. Since then, direct elections have been held every five

   The Treaty of Maastricht (1992) introduced new forms of co-operation
between the member state governments - for example on defence, and in
the area of "justice and home affairs". By adding this
inter-governmental co-operation to the existing "Community" system, the
Maastricht Treaty created the European Union (EU).

1.3 Integration means common policies 

   Economic and political integration between the member states of the
European Union means that these countries have to take joint decisions
on many matters. So they have developed common policies in a very wide
range of fields - from agriculture to culture, from consumer affairs to
competition, from the environment and energy to transport and trade.

   In the early days the focus was on a common commercial policy for
coal and steel and a common agricultural policy. Other policies were
added as time went by, and as the need arose. Some key policy aims have
changed in the light of changing circumstances. For example, the aim of
the agricultural policy is no longer to produce as much food as cheaply
as possible but to support farming methods that produce healthy,
high-quality food and protect the environment. The need for
-----> Page: 
0 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11]

© UKRREFERAT.COM 2000-2016

Друзі: Картинки, Приколы, Истории в ibigdan!