Курсова робота з іноземної мови
MASS MEDIA IN GREAT BRITAIN
In every modern country, regardless of the form of the government, the
press, radio and television are political weapons of tremendous power,
and few things are so indicative of the nature of a government as the
way in which that power is exercised. While studying the politics of any
country, it is important not only to understand the nature of the
social, economic, political or any other divisions of the population but
also to discover what organs of public and political opinion are
available for the expression of the various interests.
Although the press in this or that country is legally free, the danger
lies in the fact that the majority of people are not aware of the
ownership. The press in fact is controlled by a comparatively small
number of persons. Consequently, when the readers see different
newspapers providing the same news and expressing similar opinions they
are not sure that the news, and the evaluation of the news, are
determined by a single group of people, perhaps even by one person. In
democratic countries it has long been assumed that government ought, in
general, to do what their people want them to do.
The growth of radio and particularly of television is as important in
providing news as the press. They provide powerful means of capturing
public attention. But while private enterprise predominates in the
publishing fields in Great Britain, radio broadcasting monopoly, as was
television until late in 1955. The British Broadcasting Corporation
(BBC), a public organisation, still provides all radio programmes.
National Daily and Sunday Papers
In a democratic country like Great Britain the press, ideally, has three
political functions: information, discussion and representation. It is
supposed to give the voter reliable and complete information to base his
judgement. It should let him know the arguments for and against any
policy, and it should reflect and give voice to the desires of the
people as a whole.
Naturally, there is no censorship in Great Britain, but in 1953 the
Press Council was set up. It is not an official body but it is composed
of the people nominated by journalists, and it receives complaints
against particular newspapers. It may make reports, which criticise
papers, but they have no direct effects. The British press means,
primarily, a group of daily and Sunday newspapers published in London.
They are most important and known as national in the sense of
circulating throughout the British Isles. All the national newspapers
have their central offices in London, but those with big circulations
also print editions in Manchester (the second largest press center in
Britain) and Glasgow in Scotland.
Probably in no other country there are such great differences between
the various national daily newspapers – in the type of news they report
and the way they report it.
All the newspapers whether daily or Sunday, totalling about twenty, can
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