найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваMass media in great Britain (курсова)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуКурсова
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In every modern country, regardless of the form of the government, the

press, radio and television are political weapons of tremendous power,

and few things are so indicative of the nature of a government as the

way in which that power is exercised. While studying the politics of any

country, it is important not only to understand the nature of the

social, economic, political or any other divisions of the population but

also to discover what organs of public and political opinion are

available for the expression of the various interests.


Although the press in this or that country is legally free, the danger

lies in the fact that the majority of people are not aware of the

ownership. The press in fact is controlled by a comparatively small

number of persons. Consequently, when the readers see different

newspapers providing the same news and expressing similar opinions they

are not sure that the news, and the evaluation of the news, are

determined by a single group of people, perhaps even by one person. In

democratic countries it has long been assumed that government ought, in

general, to do what their people want them to do.


The growth of radio and particularly of television is as important in

providing news as the press. They provide powerful means of capturing

public attention. But while private enterprise predominates in the

publishing fields in Great Britain, radio broadcasting monopoly, as was

television until late in 1955. The British Broadcasting Corporation

(BBC), a public organisation, still provides all radio programmes.


Main Part


The Press


National Daily and Sunday Papers


In a democratic country like Great Britain the press, ideally, has three

political functions: information, discussion and representation. It is

supposed to give the voter reliable and complete information to base his

judgement. It should let him know the arguments for and against any

policy, and it should reflect and give voice to the desires of the

people as a whole.


Naturally, there is no censorship in Great Britain, but in 1953 the

Press Council was set up. It is not an official body but it is composed

of the people nominated by journalists, and it receives complaints

against particular newspapers. It may make reports, which criticise

papers, but they have no direct effects. The British press means,

primarily, a group of daily and Sunday newspapers published in London.

They are most important and known as national in the sense of

circulating throughout the British Isles. All the national newspapers

have their central offices in London, but those with big circulations

also print editions in Manchester (the second largest press center in

Britain) and Glasgow in Scotland.


Probably in no other country there are such great differences between

the various national daily newspapers – in the type of news they report

and the way they report it.


All the newspapers whether daily or Sunday, totalling about twenty, can

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