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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваCulture of Great Britain (курсова)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуКурсова
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Culture of Great Britain




Artistic and cultural life in Britain.


Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren.


Westminster Abbey.


St. Paul’s Cathedral.


The Tower of London.


Festivals of music and drama.


The Bath Festival.


The Chichester Theatre Festival.


The Welsh Eisteddfod.


The Edinburg Festival.


The national musical instrument of the Scots.


12 Music and musicians.


13 Art Galleries.


14 The art of acting.


15 British Drama Theatre today.




Artistic and Cultural Life in Britain


Artistic and cultural life in Britain is rather rich. It passed several

main stages in its development.


The Saxon King Alfred encouraged the arts and culture. The chief debt

owed to him by English literature is for his translations of and

commentaries on Latin works. Art, culture and literature flowered during

the Elizabethan age, during the reign of Elizabeth I; it was the period

of English domination of the oceans.


It was at this time that William Shakespeare lived.


The empire, which was very powerful under Queen Victoria, saw another

cultural and artistic hey-day as a result of industrialisation and the

expansion of international trade.


But German air raids caused much damage in the First World War and then

during the Second World War. The madness of the wars briefly interrupted

the development of culture.


Immigrants who have arrived from all parts of the Commonwealth since

1945 have not only created a mixture of nations, but have also brought

their cultures and habits with them. Monuments and traces of past

greatness are everywhere. There are buildings of all styles and periods.

A great number of museums and galleries display precious and interesting

finds from all parts of the world and from all stage in the development

of nature, man and art. London is one of the leading world centres for

music, drama, opera and dance. Festivals held in towns and cities

throughout the country attract much interest. Many British playwrights,

composers, sculptors, painters, writers, actors, singers and dancers are

known all over the world.


Inigo Jones and Christopher Wren


Inigo Jones was the first man to bring the Italian Renaissance style to

Great Britain. He had studied in Italy for some years, and in 1615

became Surveyor-General of the works.


The style he built in was pure Italian with as few modifications as

possible. His buildings were very un-English in character, with

regularly spaced columns along the front.


His two most revolutionary designs were the Banqueting House in

Whitehall and the Queen's House at Greenwich. The plan of the latter,

completely symmetrical, with its strict classical details and the

principal rooms on the first floor, influenced architecture in Britain.

But not during the lifetime of Inigo Jones. All those who followed him

had to adapt this new foreign building technique to English ways and

English climate, English building materials and English craftsmen.


Christopher Wren was the man who did it. He was a mathematician, an

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