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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваTranslation as specific type of lingual (language) (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Translation as specific type of lingual (language)


Most translators prefer to think of their work as a profession and

would like to see others to treat them like professionals rather than as

skilled or semi-skilled workers. But to achieve this, translators need

to develop an ability to stand back and reflect on what they do and how

they do it. Like doctors and engineers, they have to prove to themselves

as well as others that they are in control of what they do; that they do

not just translate well because they have ‘flair’ for translation, but

rather because, like other professionals, they have made a conscious

effort to understand various aspects of their work.


Unlike medicine and engineering, translation is a very young discipline

in academic terms. It is only just starting to feature as a subject of

study in its own right, not yet in all but in an increasing number of

universities and colleges around the world. Like any young discipline,

it needs to draw on the findings and theories of other related

disciplines in order to develop and formalize its own methods; but which

disciplines it can naturally and fruitfully be related to is still a

matter of some controversy. Almost every aspect of life in general and

of the interaction between speech communities in particular can be

considered relevant to translation, a discipline which has to concern

itself with how meaning is generated within and between various groups

of people in various cultural settings. This is clearly too big an area

to investigate in one go. So, let us just start by saying that, if

translation is ever to become a profession in the full sense of the

word, translators will need something other than the current mixture of

intuition and practice to enable them to reflect on what they do and how

they do it. They will need, above all, to acquire a sound knowledge of

the raw material with which they work: to understand what language is

and how it comes to function for its users.


Translation is a process of rendering a text, written piece or a speech

by means of other languages. The difference of translation from

retelling or other kinds of transfer of a given text is that that

translation is a process of creating an original unity in contexts and

forms of original.


The translation quality is defined by its completeness and value. “The

completeness and value of translation means definite rendering of the

contextual sense of the original piece and a high-grade

functional-stylistic conformity.”


The concept “high-grade functional-stylistic conformity” clearly points

on two existing ways of rendering the form in unity with the meaning:

the first one is a reproduction of specific features of the form of the

original piece and the second one is the creation of functional

conformities of those features. It means when translating the specific

features of an original literature we should rather consider the style

inherent for the given genre but than direct copying the form of an

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