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Реферат на тему:

 

BIRMINGHAM

 

Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the English West

Midlands. It is considered by some to be the UK's "second city". It has

the largest local authority in the United Kingdom, and is the second

largest by urban area population. It is also one of England's core

cities.

 

The City of Birmingham has a population of 991,900 (2003 estimate).

Along with Wolverhampton, Solihull and the towns of the Black Country,

Birmingham forms the largest part of a large conurbation; the "West

Midlands conurbation", which has a population of 2,275,000.

 

The metropolitan area of which Birmingham is part is defined by the

government as the West Midlands county, which also includes the city of

Coventry and has a population of 2,575,000, but in practice includes

parts of the surrounding counties of Staffordshire, Warwickshire,

Shropshire and Worcestershire. Based upon commuting and economic

influence, the metropolitan area effecitvely extends over much of the

West Midlands region.

 

The city is commonly known by its nickname Brum (from the local name

Brummagem), and its people as Brummies. Birmingham is home to the

distinctive Brummie accent and dialect.

 

Birmingham is an ethnically and culturally diverse city. Around 30% of

Birmingham's population is of non-white ethnicity; at the time of the

2001 census, 70.4% of the population was White (including 3.2% Irish),

19.5% Asian or Asian British, 6.1% Black or Black British, 0.5% Chinese,

and 3.5% of mixed or other ethnic heritage.

 

History

 

The main article is at History of Birmingham; the following is a

summary.

 

Birmingham has a recorded history going back 1000 years. In this time,

it has grown from a tiny Anglo-Saxon farming village into a major

industrial and commercial city.

 

The Birmingham area was occupied in Roman times, with several military

roads and a large fort. Birmingham started life as a small Anglo-Saxon

hamlet in the Early Middle Ages. It was first recorded in written

documents by the Domesday Book of 1086 as a small village, worth only 20

shillings.

 

In the 12th century, Birmingham was granted a charter to hold a market,

which in time became known as the Bull Ring. As a convenient location

for trade, Birmingham soon developed into a small but thriving market

town.

 

By the 16th century, Birmingham's access to supplies of iron ore and

coal meant that metalworking industries became established. In the 17th

century, Birmingham became an important manufacturing town with a

reputation for producing small arms. Birmingham manufacturers supplied

Oliver Cromwell's forces with much of their weaponry during the English

Civil War. Arms manufacture in Birmingham became a staple trade and was

concentrated in the area known as the Gun Quarter.

 

During the Industrial Revolution (from the mid 18th century onwards),

Birmingham grew rapidly into a major industrial centre. Unlike many

other English industrial cities such as Manchester, industry in

Birmingham was based upon small workshops rather than large factories or

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