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НазваHerman Hollerith (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:

Herman Hollerith



Herman Hollerith (  HYPERLINK
"" \o "February 29"  February 29
,   HYPERLINK "" \o "1860"  1860  –  
HYPERLINK "" \o "November 17" 
November 17 ,   HYPERLINK "" \o "1929" 
1929 ) was an   HYPERLINK ""
\o "United States"  American    HYPERLINK
"" \o "Statistics"  statistician 
who developed a mechanical system based on   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Punched card"  punched
cards  to rapidly tabulate statistics from thousands and millions of

Personal Life

He was born on February 29, 1860 in Buffalo, New York to Johann George
Hollerith (1808-1869); and Franciska Brunn, both of   HYPERLINK
dit" \o "Rheinfalz, Germany"  Rheinfalz, Germany . He graduated from  
"City College of New York"  City College of New York , with a bachelor's
degree in 1879. In 1880 he listed himself as a mining engineer while
living in Manhattan, and he completed his Ph.D. in 1890 at the  
ion=edit" \o "Columbia College of Mines"  Columbia College of Mines . In
1890 he married Lucia Beverley Talcott (1865-?) of Vera Cruz, Mexico and
they had six children. He died in 1929 of a heart attack and was buried
in the Oak Hill Cemetery in Georgetown, Virginia.

section=2" \o "Herman Hollerith"  edit ]

Electronic tabulation of statistical data

Hollerith spent 1882 on the Mechanical Engineering faculty at  
HYPERLINK "" \o "MIT"  MIT . During that
year he developed a prototype of a system for storing data on punched
cards which was partly inspired by the system used by railroad
conductors in which holes punched in various places on a passenger's
ticket identified the holder's passenger status. Urged on by   HYPERLINK
"" \o "John Shaw
Billings"  John Shaw Billings , he developed a mechanism for reading the
presence or absence of holes in the cards using spring-mounted needles
that passed through the holes to make electrical connections to trigger
a counter to record one more of each value. The key idea (due to
Billings) was that all personal data could be coded numerically.
Hollerith saw that the numbers could be punched in specified column on
the cards, the cards sorted mechanically, and the appropriate columns
totalled. He described his idea in Patent No. 395,782 of January 8, 1889
as follows:

The herein described method of compiling statistics which consists in
recording separate statistical items pertaining to the individual by
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