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РЕФЕРАТ

 

на тему:

 

Nettle / Кропива

 

Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)

 

Scientific classification

 

Kingdom: Plantae

 

Division: Magnoliophyta

 

Class: Magnoliopsida

 

Order: Rosales

 

Family: Urticaceae

 

Genus: Urtica

 

Species

 

Nettle (Urtica) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Urticaceae,

mostly perennial herbs but some are annual and a few are shrubby. The

most prominent member of the genus is the Stinging nettle Urtica dioica,

native to Europe, Asia, and North America. The genus also contains a

number of other species with similar properties, listed below. However,

a large number of species names that will be encountered in this genus

in the older literature (about 100 species have been described) are now

recognised as synonyms of Urtica dioica. Some of these taxa are still

recognised as subspecies.

 

All the species listed below share the property of having stinging

hairs, and can be expected to have very similar medicinal uses to the

stinging nettle. The sting of Urtica ferox, the ongaonga or tree nettle

of New Zealand, have been known to kill horses, dogs and at least one

human.

 

Species in the genus Urtica, and their primary natural ranges, include:

 

Urtica angustifolia. China, Japan, Korea.

 

Urtica cannabina. Western Asia from Siberia to Iran.

 

Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle or Bull nettle). Europe, Asia, North

America.

 

Urtica dubia (Large-leaved nettle) Canada.

 

Urtica ferox (Ongaonga or tree nettle). New Zealand.

 

Urtica hyperborea. Himalaya from Pakistan to Bhutan, Mongolia and Tibet,

high altitudes.

 

Urtica incisa (Scrub nettle). Australia.

 

Urtica laetivirens. Japan, Manchuria.

 

Urtica parviflora. Himalaya (lower altitudes).

 

Urtica pilulifera (Roman nettle). Europe

 

Urtica platyphylla. China, Japan.

 

Urtica thunbergiana. Japan.

 

Urtica urens (Dwarf nettle or Annual nettle). Europe, North America.

 

The family Urticaceae also contains some other plants called nettles

that are not members of the genus Urtica. These include the Wood nettle

Laportea canadensis, found in eastern North America from Nova Scotia to

Florida, and the False nettle Boehmeria cylindrica, found in most of the

United States east of the Rockies. As its name implies, the false nettle

does not sting.

 

Nettles are the exclusive larval food plant for several species of

butterfly and are also eaten by the larvae of some moths including Dot

Moth, The Flame, The Gothic, Grey Chi, Grey Pug, Lesser Broad-bordered

Yellow Underwing, Mouse Moth, Setaceous Hebrew Character and Small Angle

Shades. The roots are sometimes eaten by the larva of the Ghost Moth

Hepialus humuli.

 

Uses

 

Nettle stems are a popular raw material used in small-scale papermaking.

 

The tops of growing nettles are a popular cooked green in many areas,

and are exceptionally high in protein. Some cooks throw away a first

water to get rid of the formic acid, while others retain the water and

cook the nettles straight. Nettle tops are sold in some farmers' markets

and natural food stores. Nettle is believed to be a galactagogue and a

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