Nettle / Кропива
Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica)
Nettle (Urtica) is a genus of flowering plants in the family Urticaceae,
mostly perennial herbs but some are annual and a few are shrubby. The
most prominent member of the genus is the Stinging nettle Urtica dioica,
native to Europe, Asia, and North America. The genus also contains a
number of other species with similar properties, listed below. However,
a large number of species names that will be encountered in this genus
in the older literature (about 100 species have been described) are now
recognised as synonyms of Urtica dioica. Some of these taxa are still
recognised as subspecies.
All the species listed below share the property of having stinging
hairs, and can be expected to have very similar medicinal uses to the
stinging nettle. The sting of Urtica ferox, the ongaonga or tree nettle
of New Zealand, have been known to kill horses, dogs and at least one
Species in the genus Urtica, and their primary natural ranges, include:
Urtica angustifolia. China, Japan, Korea.
Urtica cannabina. Western Asia from Siberia to Iran.
Urtica dioica (Stinging nettle or Bull nettle). Europe, Asia, North
Urtica dubia (Large-leaved nettle) Canada.
Urtica ferox (Ongaonga or tree nettle). New Zealand.
Urtica hyperborea. Himalaya from Pakistan to Bhutan, Mongolia and Tibet,
Urtica incisa (Scrub nettle). Australia.
Urtica laetivirens. Japan, Manchuria.
Urtica parviflora. Himalaya (lower altitudes).
Urtica pilulifera (Roman nettle). Europe
Urtica platyphylla. China, Japan.
Urtica thunbergiana. Japan.
Urtica urens (Dwarf nettle or Annual nettle). Europe, North America.
The family Urticaceae also contains some other plants called nettles
that are not members of the genus Urtica. These include the Wood nettle
Laportea canadensis, found in eastern North America from Nova Scotia to
Florida, and the False nettle Boehmeria cylindrica, found in most of the
United States east of the Rockies. As its name implies, the false nettle
does not sting.
Nettles are the exclusive larval food plant for several species of
butterfly and are also eaten by the larvae of some moths including Dot
Moth, The Flame, The Gothic, Grey Chi, Grey Pug, Lesser Broad-bordered
Yellow Underwing, Mouse Moth, Setaceous Hebrew Character and Small Angle
Shades. The roots are sometimes eaten by the larva of the Ghost Moth
Nettle stems are a popular raw material used in small-scale papermaking.
The tops of growing nettles are a popular cooked green in many areas,
and are exceptionally high in protein. Some cooks throw away a first
water to get rid of the formic acid, while others retain the water and
cook the nettles straight. Nettle tops are sold in some farmers' markets
and natural food stores. Nettle is believed to be a galactagogue and a
0