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НазваVerb: the Category of Mood (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:


Verb: the Category of Mood


The category of Mood is the most controversial category of the verb.


B.A. Ilyish: " The category of mood in the present English verb has

given rise to so many discussions, and has been treated in so many

different ways, that it seems hardly possible to arrive at any more less

convincing and universally acceptable conclusion concerning it."


Among the scholars to be named in the first place in relation to the

problem are A.I. Smirnitsky, whose theories revolutionized the

presentation of English verbal grammar; then B.A. Ilyish , a linguist

who made a great contribution to the general problem of mood; then Y.N.

Vorontsova; Z.S. Khlebnikova.


The category of Mood expresses the relations between the action, denoted

by the verb, and the actual reality from the point of view of the

speaker. The speaker may treat the action/event as real, unreal or

problematic or as fact that really happened, happens or will happen, or

as an imaginary phenomenon.


It follows from this that the category of Mood may be presented by the



obligue mood - direct mood


= unreality = reality.


The former is the strong member.


The latter is the weak member.


Mood relates the verbal action to such conditions as certainty,

obligation, necessity, possibility.


The most disputable question in the category of mood is the problem of

number and types of Obligue Moods. Obligue Moods denote unreal or

problematic actions so they can't be modified by the category of tense

proper. They denote only relative time, that is simultaneousness or

priority. Due to the variety of forms it's impossible to make up regular

paradigms of Obligue Moods and so classify them.


Some authors pay more attention to the plane of expression, other to the

plane of content. So different authors speak of different number and

types of moods. The most popular in Grammar has become the system of

moods put forward By Prof. Smirnitsky. He speaks of 6 mood forms:


The Indicative Mood


The Imperative Mood


Subjunctive I


Subjunctive II


The Conditional Mood


The Suppositional Mood


Subjunctive I expresses a problematic action. Subjunctive I is used in

American English and in newspaper style. Subjunctive I coincides with

the Infinitive without the particle to. Ex.: Ring me up if he would

be there.


This mood is expressed in English to a very minor extent (e.g.: So be it

then!). It is only used in certain set expressions, which have to be

learned as wholes:


Come what may, we will go ahead.


God save the Queen!


Suffice it to say that...


Be that as it may...


Heaven forbid that...


So be it then.


Long live the King!


Grammar be hanged!


This Mood is also used in that clauses, when the main clause contains an

expression of recommendation, resolution, demand, etc. The use of this

subjunctive I occurs chiefly in formal style (and especially in Am E)

where in less other devices, such as to - infinitive or should =



It is necessary that he be there.

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