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Реферат на тему:

 

My native town – Kolomiya

 

Kolomyia (Ukrainian: Коломия, Polish: Ko?omyja, Russian: Коломыя) is a

town and a raion (district) centre in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast (province)

in Ukraine, at the Prut River. It is located at 48° 31? 50? N, 025° 02?

25? E, almost halfways between Lviv and Chernivtsi, in the centre of the

historical region of Pokuttya, with which it shared much of its history.

 

 

The town has circa 68.000 inhabitants (as of 1993). It is a notable

railroad hub, as well as an industrial centre (textiles, shoes,

metallurgical plant, machine works, wood and paper industry). It is also

one of centres of Hutsul culture.

 

History

 

The settlement of Kolomyia was first mentioned in 1241, during the

Mongol Invasion of Rus'. Initially part of Kievan Rus', it later

belonged to one of its successor states, the principality of

Halych-Volhynia. In 1340 it was annexed to Poland by king Casimir the

Great, together with the rest of the region of Red Ruthenia. In short

time the settlement became one of the most notable centres of commerce

in the area. Because of that, the population rose rapidly.

 

Prior to 1353 there were two parochies in the settlement, one for

Catholics and the other for Orthodox. In 1412 king W?adys?aw Jagie??o

erected a Dominican order monastery and a stone-built church there.

About the same time, the king was forced by the war with the Teutonic

Order to pawn the area of Pokucie to the hospodar of Valachia Alexander.

Although the city remained under Polish sovereignity, the income of the

customs offices in the area was given to Vallachians, after which time

the debt was repaid.

 

Development

 

In 1424 the town's city rights were confirmed and it was granted with

the Magdeburg Law, which allowed the burghers for a limited

self-governance. This moved made the development of the area faster and

Ko?omyja, as it was called back then, attracted many settlers from many

parts of Europe. Apart from the local Ruthenians and Poles, many

Armenians, Jews and Hungarians settled there. In 1443, a year before his

death, king Wladislaus II of Poland granted the city with yet another

privilege which allowed the burghers to trade with salt, one of the most

precious minerals of the Middle Ages.

 

Since the castle gradually fell into dismay, in 1448 king Casimir IV of

Poland gave the castle on the hill above the town to Maria, widow of

Eliah, voivod of Moldavia as a dowry. In exchange, she refurbished the

castle and reinforced it. In 1456 the town was granted with yet another

privilege. This time the king allowed the town authorities to stop all

merchants passing by the town and force them to sell their goods at the

local market. This gave the town additional boost, especially that the

region was one of three salt-producing areas in Poland (the other two

being Wieliczka and Bochnia, both not far from Krakуw.

 

The area was relatively peaceful for the last century. However, the

vacuum after the decline of the Golden Horde started to be filled with

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