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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваCeltic Britain (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Celtic  Britain


Who were they?  The Iron Age is age of the  “Celt” in Britain. Over the
500 or so years leading up to the first Roman invasion a Celtic culture
established itself throughout the British Isles. Who were these Celts?

For a start, the concept of a “Celtic” people is a modern and somewhat
romantic reinterpretation of history. The “Celts” were warring tribes
who certainly wouldn’t have seen themselves as one people at the time. 

The “Celts” as we traditionally regard them exist largely in the
magnificence of their art and the words of the Romans who fought them.
The trouble with the reports of the Romans is that they were a mix of
reportage and political propaganda. It was politically expedient for the
Celtic peoples to be coloured as barbarians and the Romans as a great
civilizing force. And history written by the winners is always suspect.

Where did they come from?  What we do know is that the people we call
Celts gradually infiltrated Britain over the course of the centuries
between about 500 and 100  B.C. there was probably never an organized
Celtic invasion; for one thing the Celts were so fragmented and given to
fighting themselves that the idea of a concerted invasion would have
been ludicrous.

The Celts were a group of peoples loosely tied by similar language,
religion, and cultural expression. They were not centrally governed, and
quite as happy to fight each other as any non – Celt. They were
warrious, living for the glories of battle and plunder. They were also
the people who brought iron working to the British Isles.

Hill forts. The time of the “ Celtic conversion” of  Britain saw a huge
growth  in  the  number of  hill  forts  throughout  the region. These 
were  often  small  ditch  and  bank  combinations  encircling 
defensible  hilltops.  Some  are  small  enough  that  they  were  of 
no  practical  use   for  more  than  an  individual  family,  though 
over  time  many  larger  forts  were  built.  The  curious  thing  is 
that  we  don’t  know  if  the  hill  forts  were  built  by  the 
native  Britons  to  defend  themselves  from  the  encroaching  Celts, 
or  by  the  Celts  as  they  moved  their   way  into  hostile 

Usually  these  forts  contained  no  source  of  water,  so  their  use
  as  long  term  settlements  is  doubtful,  though  they  may  have 
been  useful  indeed  for  withstanding  a  short  term  siege.  Many 
of  the  hill forts  were  built  on  top  of  earlier  causeways 

Celtic  family  life.  The  basic  unit  of  Celtic  life  was  the 
clan,  a  sort  of  extended  family.  The  term  “family”  is  a  bit 
misleading,  for  by  all  accounts  the Celts  practiced  a  peculiar 
form  of  child  rearing;  they  didn’t  rear  them,  they  farmed  them
 out.  Children  were  actually  raised  by  foster  parents.  The 
foster  father  was  often  the  brother  of  the   birth – mother.  
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