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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваLavender / Лаванда (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Lavender / Лаванда




Scientific classification


Kingdom: Plantae


Division: Magnoliophyta


Class: Magnoliopsida


Order: Lamiales


Family: Lamiaceae


Genus: Lavandula L.




About 25-30, including:


Lavandula angustifolia


Lavandula canariensis


Lavandula dentata


Lavandula lanata


Lavandula latifolia


Lavandula multifida


Lavandula pinnata


Lavandula stoechas


Lavandula viridis


The lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering

plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean

region south to tropical Africa and east to India. The genus includes

annuals, herbaceous plants, subshrubs, and small shrubs. The native

range extends across the Canary Islands, North and East Africa, south

Europe and the Mediterranean, Arabia, and India. Because the cultivated

forms are planted in gardens world-wide, they are occasionally found

growing wild, as garden escapes, well beyond their natural range.



Cultivation and uses


The most common species in cultivation is the Common Lavender Lavandula

angustifolia (formerly L. officinalis). A wide range of cultivars can be

found. Other commonly grown ornamental species are L. stoechas, L.

dentata, and L. multifida.


Lavenders are much grown in gardens. Flower spikes are used for dried

flower arrangements. The fragrant, pale purple flowers and flower buds

are used in potpourris. Dried and sealed in pouches, they are placed

among stored items of clothing to give a fresh fragrance and as a

deterrent to moths. The plant is also grown commercially for extraction

of lavender oil from the flowers. This oil is used as an antiseptic and

for aromatherapy.


Lavender flowers yield abundant nectar which yields a high quality honey

for beekeepers. Lavender honey is produced primarily in the nations

around the Mediterranean, and marketed worldwide as a premium product.

Lavender flowers can be candied and are used as cake decoration.

Lavender is also used as a herb, either alone or as an ingredient of

herbes de Provence.




The ancient Greeks called the lavender herb nardus, after the Syrian

city of Naarda. It was also commonly called nard.


During Roman times, flowers were sold for 100 denarii per pound, which

was about the same as months wage for a farm labourer or 50 haircuts

from the local barber. Lavender was commonly used in Roman baths to

scent the water, and it was thought to restore the skin. When the Roman

Empire conquered southern Britain, the Romans introduced lavender.


During the height of the Plague, glove makers at Grasse would scent

their leathers with lavender oil, and this was claimed to ward off the

Plague. This story could have some validity as the Plague was

transmitted by fleas, which lavender is known to repel.


Herbal Remedies


Lavender has been extensively used in herbalism. An infusion of lavender

is claimed to soothe and heal insect bites. Bunches of lavender are also

said to ward off insects. If applied to the temples, lavender oil is

said to soothe headaches. Lavender is frequently used as an aid to

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