Реферат на тему:
Swastika in history
THE SUN WHEEL AND SWASTIKA IN HISTORY
One of the symbols the Aryans had was the sun wheel, representing the
sun and originally meaning "well being". Originally a letter of the
ancient Indo-European Sanskrit language, this emblem was carried by
Celts, Germans and Slavs throughout their wanderings, with the Celtic
Cross later incorporated into Christian symbolism. The sun-wheel was
developed into the sign known today as the swastika and incorporated
into the Indo-Aryan's religion, from where it was transported over into
the Hindu religion, which sprang from a corruption of the Indo-Aryans'
beliefs. This is the reason why the swastika can be seen to this day in
As an enduring symbol of the Indo-European peoples wherever they went,
the swastika is found in all the lands where these people settled. Some
1. The Swastika in India:
Above: The swastika can be seen on a carving called an ayagaptha, in
Mathura, India. The emblem is one of the last remains of the tribe of
Nordic Indo-Europeans - who called themselves Aryans - who invaded
India. In that land, they were eventually absorbed into the overwhelming
Nonwhite mass, creating the caste system still present in that country
to this day.
2. The Swastika in Classical Greece:
Above: An example of how the swastika was also used as a symbol in
Classical Greece. Here it can be seen as a decoration on the clothing of
a picture of Athene, the Goddess of Wisdom, the arts and war - and also
patron of the city of Athens. This detail is from a Greek vase dating
from approximately 500 BC.
3. The Swastika in Classical Rome:
Above: The Indo-European origins of the Romans - in particular the
Latini tribe - are apparent through their liberal use of the swastika as
an emblem. Here the swastika can be seen upon the Ara Pacis Augustae:
the altar built to commemorate the peace established by Augustus,
consecrated 4 July 13 BC. The swastika can also be seen in a virtually
identical format in many Classical Greek designs: hence it is often
called a "Greek key" pattern.
4. The Swastika in the Viking era
Above: The Indo-European origins of the Vikings is illustrated by this
detail from a very well preserved Viking ship uncovered by archeologists
in Scandinavia, known as the Osberg ship, circa 800 AD. A handle mount
on a bucket found in the ship depicts a figure carrying a shield with
four swastika sun emblems in its corners. The fact that the swastika
appears as a symbol from Scandinavia to Italy to India indicates
precisely how far the Indo-European influence was felt.
5. The Isle of Man Triskelion, ca. 10 Century AD.
According to the islanders, this symbol was of Norsk [Norwegian] origin,
and was displayed on the armorial bearings of the Kings of Norway.
The Triskelion also appears on this 6th Century B.C. Greek vase -
further evidence of cultural links through race and time:
6. The Swastika and Adolf Hitler
Above: The sun wheel, or swastika, was a symbol in the ancient Nordic