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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваFricative string instruments and percussive string instruments (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Fricative string instruments and percussive string instruments


The Lira (Hurdy-Gurdy)


The lira, or relia, is a variant of the hurdy-gurdy, an instrument that

can trace its history back to the 10th century. It is thought that the

lira was introduced into Ukraine in the 17th century and served as an

instrument to accompany of religious psalms and epic ballads performed

by wandering blind musicians called 'lirnyky'. Occasionally lirnyky were

hired to play dance music at weddings. These lirnyky often organized

themselves into guilds or brotherhoods with their own laws and secret



The traditional lira has three strings, one on which the melody is

played with the aid of a special keyboard, the other two producing a

drone of a fifth. The sound is produced by a wooden wheel that is

rotated by a crank held in the right hand. This wheel rubs against the

strings, setting them in motion like a bow on a violin. Several

different types of chromatic liras have been produced in Ukraine,

however interest in the instrument has declined considerably. Prominent

contemporary performers on the lira include Vasyl Nechepa and Mykhailo



The Fiddle (Skrypka)


The traditional fiddle has now been replaced by the standard violin,

however the folk tradition of playing the instrument is still alive. The

fiddle is a prominent instrument at weddings, found in ensembles of

troyista muzyka that usually perform dance music. Fiddlers also play

solo works of a program type for listening. Many traditional fiddles

were very crude in construction, some being just boards with strings

attached. The Ukrainian writer, Ivan Franko, said that "in Galicia one

has to make the fiddle from a pine tree struck by lightning. Then it

will be loud."


The Hudok


One of the most ancient bowed string instruments of the Eastern Slavs is

the hudok. The hudok had three strings and was played with a bow. It was

popular in the times of Kievan Rus' where it is thought to have used

primarily for the playing of dance music.


It was often used by the buffoon musicians and accompanied by the husli.

An 11th century fresco on the walls of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev

shows a hudok player with a group of other musicians. The instrument was

approximately 80cm (31.5 in.) in length and was balanced on the knee

while it was played. The back of the hudok was carved from a single

piece of timber and the three strings were bowed all at once. Two of the

strings providing a constant drone while a melody was played on the

third. The hudok was made redundant by the violin and the lira and is no

longer used in Ukraine.


The Basolia


The basolia has now been replaced by the standard cello. Previously the

Basolia was these instruments were homemade and of very rough

construction, and usually had having only three strings and usually

being larger than the standard cello. Sometimes the soundboard was sewn

rather than glued to the body. The basolia has now been totally replaced

by the standard cello.


The basolia was an instrument that was often ridiculed for its quality

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