найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

Всього в базі: 75765
останнє поновлення: 2016-10-23
за 7 днів додано 10

Реферати на українській
Реферати на російській
Українські підручники

$ Робота на замовлення
Реклама на сайті
Зворотній зв'язок


реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваFricative string instruments and percussive string instruments (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
Замовити оригінальну роботу
Fricative string instruments and percussive string instruments

The Lira (Hurdy-Gurdy)

The lira, or relia, is a variant of the hurdy-gurdy, an instrument that
can trace its history back to the 10th century. It is thought that the
lira was introduced into Ukraine in the 17th century and served as an
instrument to accompany of religious psalms and epic ballads performed
by wandering blind musicians called 'lirnyky'. Occasionally lirnyky were
hired to play dance music at weddings. These lirnyky often organized
themselves into guilds or brotherhoods with their own laws and secret

The traditional lira has three strings, one on which the melody is
played with the aid of a special keyboard, the other two producing a
drone of a fifth. The sound is produced by a wooden wheel that is
rotated by a crank held in the right hand. This wheel rubs against the
strings, setting them in motion like a bow on a violin. Several
different types of chromatic liras have been produced in Ukraine,
however interest in the instrument has declined considerably. Prominent
contemporary performers on the lira include Vasyl Nechepa and Mykhailo

The Fiddle (Skrypka)

The traditional fiddle has now been replaced by the standard violin,
however the folk tradition of playing the instrument is still alive. The
fiddle is a prominent instrument at weddings, found in ensembles of
troyista muzyka that usually perform dance music. Fiddlers also play
solo works of a program type for listening. Many traditional fiddles
were very crude in construction, some being just boards with strings
attached. The Ukrainian writer, Ivan Franko, said that "in Galicia one
has to make the fiddle from a pine tree struck by lightning. Then it
will be loud."

The Hudok

One of the most ancient bowed string instruments of the Eastern Slavs is
the hudok. The hudok had three strings and was played with a bow. It was
popular in the times of Kievan Rus' where it is thought to have used
primarily for the playing of dance music.

It was often used by the buffoon musicians and accompanied by the husli.
An 11th century fresco on the walls of the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev
shows a hudok player with a group of other musicians. The instrument was
approximately 80cm (31.5 in.) in length and was balanced on the knee
while it was played. The back of the hudok was carved from a single
piece of timber and the three strings were bowed all at once. Two of the
strings providing a constant drone while a melody was played on the
third. The hudok was made redundant by the violin and the lira and is no
longer used in Ukraine.

The Basolia

The basolia has now been replaced by the standard cello. Previously the
Basolia was these instruments were homemade and of very rough
construction, and usually had having only three strings and usually
being larger than the standard cello. Sometimes the soundboard was sewn
rather than glued to the body. The basolia has now been totally replaced
by the standard cello.

The basolia was an instrument that was often ridiculed for its quality
-----> Page: 
0 [1] [2]

© UKRREFERAT.COM 2000-2016

Друзі: Картинки, Приколы, Истории в ibigdan!