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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваInstrumental folk music(реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Instrumental folk music


The most simple and earliest forms of instrumental folk music include

signals used in various occupations and in ceremony. The inhabitants of

the Carpathian mountains used the trembita in its various forms to

inform others about the birth or death of a villager, to signal the

return of shepherds back from mountain pastures and for other important



The traditional signals are territorial, and form an intricate method of

communication. Many of these signals have been recorded, particularly

signals used by shepherds to note the time to arise, to go to bed, to do

the midday milking or to warn about the proximity thiefs. Ceremonial

signals are typically functional in origin. Violin melodies are played

at various parts of a wedding ceremony such as the handing over of the

bride, the weaving of the wedding towels around the arms of the newly

weds, and the beginning of the wedding banquet.


At funeral services special motifs were played to bid farewell to the

departed soul. Song forms are usually based on the melodic and harmonic

basis of the songs accompanied. Some forms require special accompaniment

forms such as in the dumy accompanied by the bandura, kobza or lira.

Dance music is an integral part of the instrumental music repertoire.


In contrast with Ukrainian folksongs, rich in melodies and varied in

rhythmical structures, the folk dances are mostly in duple time, and

based on symmetrical musical periods. The principal dances are closely

related musically and only different accents establish their

choreographical characteristics. Dances were usually incorporated into

rituals such as the wedding, and holidays. The Ukrainians have many

dances that imitate daily life and works such as: Kozak, Kysil, Buhaj,

Poltavka, Dudochka, Metelytsia, Hajduk, Chaban, and many others. The

most prominent Ukrainian folk dances are:


The Metelytsia


The title literally means snowstorm dance. Usually the Metelytsia is in

a minor key in 2/4 time. This dance abounds in swift choreographed

figures of a spinning nature, symbolizing a snowstorm. The dance retains

much of its Khorovod character, the ancient form of communal or group

dancing and choral sining with many figures in a circle form. In the

past the Metelytsia was danced to only choral accompaniment. Prelevant

in the Eastern half of Ukraine.


The Hopak


The Hopak is one of the most popular dances originally only for men in

which they could show off their prowess, heroism and manliness. Often

during the Hopak a series of spectacular solos by several dancers

generates an exciting air of competition. This dance incorporates many

acrobatic movements, usually in a major key and a fast tempo. Variants

of the Hopak include the Zaporozetz, Tropak. Hopak melodies may vary in

mood but are generally in the major mode. Some Hopak melodies are

performed entirely without singing, and may be heard without any dancing

at all.


The Kozachok


The title of this dance is derived from the word Kozak, and its origins

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