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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваPercussive instruments (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Percussive instruments

The Bubon (Resheto, Taraban, Tambourine)

The bubon consists of a wooden ring with a diameter of up to 50cm (20in)
which has a skin tightened over one or both sides. Occasionally, holes
are made in the wooden sides into which metal rings are placed which
rattle when the bubon is struck with the hand or a stick. The first
mentions of the bubon date back to the 11th century; It was also a
popular instrument among the Ukrainian Cossacks.

The Cymbals (Tarilky)

The cymbals were used in Kievan Rus' and are depicted on the walls of
the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. They are also depicted in the Kiev
Psalter of 1397. They were used in the military music of the Zaporozhian
Cossacks. In the 19th century the cymbals usually formed part of a drum
kit. One cymbal attached to the side of a drum was struck by another
cymbal held in one hand, while the other hand struck the drum with a

The Kettle Drums, Timpani, (Lytavry, Tulumbasy)

The kettle drums were used in Ukraine from the times of the Cossacks,
and probably earlier as a signaling device to announce meetings and
enemy attacks. They have been recently introduced into folk instrument

Illustration (p35) Cossack striking kettle drum (Remove this
illustration. The cossack is not holding the sticks correctly.)

The Bass Drum

The bass drum is often used together with a cymbal to provide rhythmic
accompaniment in the troyista muzyka. This instrument is sometimes
called a bubon or bukhalo. 

The Bukhalo (Drum kit, Bass drum)

This is a type of large drum often used in dance music. It is fixed to
the player with a belt so that the performer can also dance and move
about when needed. The bukhalo is struck with a stick and often has a
cymbal joined to the side of the instrument which is struck by a metal
rod, or another cymbal, to produce unexpected rhythmic devices. The
sticks are called bubinky. The one used to strike the drum is made of
wood, and the one used to strike the cymbal is made of metal.

The Buhay (Buhai, Berebenytsia, Bika, Buga, Bochka)

The buhay is an instrument that originated in Western Ukraine and is
classified as a friction drum. It consists of a conical barrel sometimes
a bucket. At one end a sheep membrane is stretched with a hole in this
skin's center. Through this hole a tuft of horse hair with a knot at one
end is passed. Usually two performers are needed to operate the
instrument, one to hold the instrument, the other to pull the horsehair
with moistened fingers. In recent times versions of the Buhay have been
made which are held in position by the players feet. These instruments
can be played successfully by one player without assistance. Five to six
different sounds can be obtained from the instrument, depending on the
skill of the player.

It plays an important part in New Years and Christmas rituals and can
also be found in Romania, Moldova, Hungary and Lithuania, where it is
known as the Bukhai.

The Derkach

The derkach is occasionally used in Ukrainian folk instrument
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