найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваPercussive instruments (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Percussive instruments


The Bubon (Resheto, Taraban, Tambourine)


The bubon consists of a wooden ring with a diameter of up to 50cm (20in)

which has a skin tightened over one or both sides. Occasionally, holes

are made in the wooden sides into which metal rings are placed which

rattle when the bubon is struck with the hand or a stick. The first

mentions of the bubon date back to the 11th century; It was also a

popular instrument among the Ukrainian Cossacks.


The Cymbals (Tarilky)


The cymbals were used in Kievan Rus' and are depicted on the walls of

the St. Sophia Cathedral in Kiev. They are also depicted in the Kiev

Psalter of 1397. They were used in the military music of the Zaporozhian

Cossacks. In the 19th century the cymbals usually formed part of a drum

kit. One cymbal attached to the side of a drum was struck by another

cymbal held in one hand, while the other hand struck the drum with a



The Kettle Drums, Timpani, (Lytavry, Tulumbasy)


The kettle drums were used in Ukraine from the times of the Cossacks,

and probably earlier as a signaling device to announce meetings and

enemy attacks. They have been recently introduced into folk instrument



Illustration (p35) Cossack striking kettle drum (Remove this

illustration. The cossack is not holding the sticks correctly.)


The Bass Drum


The bass drum is often used together with a cymbal to provide rhythmic

accompaniment in the troyista muzyka. This instrument is sometimes

called a bubon or bukhalo.


The Bukhalo (Drum kit, Bass drum)


This is a type of large drum often used in dance music. It is fixed to

the player with a belt so that the performer can also dance and move

about when needed. The bukhalo is struck with a stick and often has a

cymbal joined to the side of the instrument which is struck by a metal

rod, or another cymbal, to produce unexpected rhythmic devices. The

sticks are called bubinky. The one used to strike the drum is made of

wood, and the one used to strike the cymbal is made of metal.


The Buhay (Buhai, Berebenytsia, Bika, Buga, Bochka)


The buhay is an instrument that originated in Western Ukraine and is

classified as a friction drum. It consists of a conical barrel sometimes

a bucket. At one end a sheep membrane is stretched with a hole in this

skin's center. Through this hole a tuft of horse hair with a knot at one

end is passed. Usually two performers are needed to operate the

instrument, one to hold the instrument, the other to pull the horsehair

with moistened fingers. In recent times versions of the Buhay have been

made which are held in position by the players feet. These instruments

can be played successfully by one player without assistance. Five to six

different sounds can be obtained from the instrument, depending on the

skill of the player.


It plays an important part in New Years and Christmas rituals and can

also be found in Romania, Moldova, Hungary and Lithuania, where it is

known as the Bukhai.


The Derkach


The derkach is occasionally used in Ukrainian folk instrument

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