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НазваPlucked string instruments (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Plucked string instruments STRING INSTRUMENTS


There are three types of string instruments differentiated from each
other by the way in which sound is produced on their strings. In the
first group of chordophones we find the instruments plucked with the
fingers or a plectrum. These include the husli, the kobza, the torban,
and the bandura. 

The second group is that of the fricative chordophones. It contains the
lira (hurdy-gurdy), the hudok, the violin, the basolia, and the kozobas.
The third group - percussive string instruments chordophones are
represented by the hammer dulcimer.


The Husli

The word husli was, in the times of Kievan Rus', the generic word for a
string musical instrument. This Later the word became associated with a
psaltery-like instrument that existed in Kievan Rus' and continued to be
played in Ukraine until well into the 19th century. The root of the word
is derived from the early Slavic word "gosl," which meant "string" and
can be found in other Slavic languages have formed terms dealing with
string music instruments. In Bulgaria and Yugoslavia "gusle" denotes a
one-stringed fiddle. In Western Ukraine and in Byelorus' it is often
used to denote a fiddle and sometimes a ducted flute. A special school
of music was opened in Hlukhiv in 1738, Chernihiv province, which taught
bandura, violin and husli. It is thought that the husli influenced the
introduction of treble strings on the bandura and that because of this,
the bandura replaced the husli. In the 19th century it was played
primarily by townsfolk and clergy. The husli had 11 to 36 gut or metal
diatonically tuned strings and was made in various sizes. It is thought
to have come to Rus' from Byzantium. The husli were primarily used by
the landed gentry and was made redundant by the introduction of keyboard
instruments. They are no longer in widespread use as a Ukrainian folk
instrument, though they continue to be used in Russia

The Kobza

The history of the kobza can be traced back to 6th century Greek
chronicles and it was often mentioned by wandering Arab scholars who
visited Rus' in the 10-11th centuries. The term itself is thought to be
of Middle Eastern extraction and was thought to have been introduced
into the Ukrainian language in the 13th century with the migration of a
large group of people from Abkhazia to the Poltava region. The term came
to differentiate this instrument from other string instruments
generically known as husli.

The kobza became a favorite instrument of the Ukrainian Cossacks and was
widely played by the rural masses and in the courts of Polish kings and
Russian tsars. Here it served a role similar to the lute in Western
Europe. Unfortunately, the kobza, like its close cousin the lute, fell
into disuse and was gradually replaced by the bandura, guitar and
mandolin. The term kobza later became a synonym for the bandura. The
instrument kobza was traditionally carved out of a single piece of wood
and consisted of a soundboard with strings strung across it. The number
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