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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваPlucked string instruments (реферат)
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РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Plucked string instruments STRING INSTRUMENTS

 

(Chordophones)

 

There are three types of string instruments differentiated from each

other by the way in which sound is produced on their strings. In the

first group of chordophones we find the instruments plucked with the

fingers or a plectrum. These include the husli, the kobza, the torban,

and the bandura.

 

The second group is that of the fricative chordophones. It contains the

lira (hurdy-gurdy), the hudok, the violin, the basolia, and the kozobas.

The third group - percussive string instruments chordophones are

represented by the hammer dulcimer.

 

PLUCKED STRING INSTRUMENTS

 

The Husli

 

The word husli was, in the times of Kievan Rus', the generic word for a

string musical instrument. This Later the word became associated with a

psaltery-like instrument that existed in Kievan Rus' and continued to be

played in Ukraine until well into the 19th century. The root of the word

is derived from the early Slavic word "gosl," which meant "string" and

can be found in other Slavic languages have formed terms dealing with

string music instruments. In Bulgaria and Yugoslavia "gusle" denotes a

one-stringed fiddle. In Western Ukraine and in Byelorus' it is often

used to denote a fiddle and sometimes a ducted flute. A special school

of music was opened in Hlukhiv in 1738, Chernihiv province, which taught

bandura, violin and husli. It is thought that the husli influenced the

introduction of treble strings on the bandura and that because of this,

the bandura replaced the husli. In the 19th century it was played

primarily by townsfolk and clergy. The husli had 11 to 36 gut or metal

diatonically tuned strings and was made in various sizes. It is thought

to have come to Rus' from Byzantium. The husli were primarily used by

the landed gentry and was made redundant by the introduction of keyboard

instruments. They are no longer in widespread use as a Ukrainian folk

instrument, though they continue to be used in Russia

 

The Kobza

 

The history of the kobza can be traced back to 6th century Greek

chronicles and it was often mentioned by wandering Arab scholars who

visited Rus' in the 10-11th centuries. The term itself is thought to be

of Middle Eastern extraction and was thought to have been introduced

into the Ukrainian language in the 13th century with the migration of a

large group of people from Abkhazia to the Poltava region. The term came

to differentiate this instrument from other string instruments

generically known as husli.

 

The kobza became a favorite instrument of the Ukrainian Cossacks and was

widely played by the rural masses and in the courts of Polish kings and

Russian tsars. Here it served a role similar to the lute in Western

Europe. Unfortunately, the kobza, like its close cousin the lute, fell

into disuse and was gradually replaced by the bandura, guitar and

mandolin. The term kobza later became a synonym for the bandura. The

instrument kobza was traditionally carved out of a single piece of wood

and consisted of a soundboard with strings strung across it. The number

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