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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваRecently introduced foreign folk instruments (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Recently introduced foreign folk instruments


In the late 19th and early 20th century several non-Ukrainian folk

instruments began to gain popularity in Ukraine. Most of these

instruments were introduced from Russia. With the introduction of mass

production they became readily and cheaply available, having superior

acoustic properties when compared to the traditionally handcrafted

instruments. Thus many of these instruments began to replace the more

traditional Ukrainian folk instruments to the extent that many

traditional instruments disappeared. Examples of this are the

replacement of the torban and fretted kobza with the seven-stringed

guitar, the small fretted kobza with the mandolin, and later the

four-stringed domra.


Most instruments however underwent changes to suit Ukrainian tastes in

music. Consequently, the balalaika received a different tuning and six

strings rather than the three it had in Russia. The domra received four

strings and a tuning in fifths rather than three strings and a tuning in



In recent times, the development of Ukrainian folk Instruments and the

reintroduction of traditional instruments to replace these foreign

instruments has become a major question. The orchestral four-string

kobza tuned in fifths, has been introduced to replace the four-string

domra. The seven-string kobza was designed to replace the seven-string

"Russian" guitar. These efforts however are being met with a certain

amount of opposition.


The Bayan-accordion


Originally the bayan was introduced into Eastern Ukraine from Russia in

the 1920's and into Western Ukraine after the WWII. It is now used

prolifically and has replaced many traditional Ukrainian folk

instruments many regions of Ukraine. The accordion was initially

introduced into Russia in the 1830's from Germany. It was developed into

its modern form by the St. Petersburg instrument maker P. Sterlingov in



The Balalaika


In Ukraine the balalaika was previously known as the "balabaika." It was

developed into a modern instrument by salon violinist Vasyl Andreev in

the 1880's after Andreev had seen Neapolitan mandolin orchestras in

Italy. His first balalaika was made in 1883. In 1889, after successful

performances in Paris, the instrument began to gain popularity in Russia

and Ukraine. The most famous contemporary balalaika virtuoso is the

Ukrainian Pavel Nechyporenko who hails from Chernihiv. There are no

longer any professional Russian Folk instrument orchestras in Ukraine,

and balalaika courses have either been discontinued or are being phased

out in conservatories in Ukraine.


The Domra


The four-stringed domra. The domra was also developed by Vasyl Andreev.

In 1895 a round bodied three-string instrument was discovered i n a

stable in Russia. Although later it was thought to have been a version

of the balalaika, it continued to be known as the domra. Initially given

a tuning in fourths that differed slightly from the tuning of the

balalaika. A mandolin-like technique was incorporated which used a

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