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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваRecently introduced foreign folk instruments (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Recently introduced foreign folk instruments

In the late 19th and early 20th century several non-Ukrainian folk
instruments began to gain popularity in Ukraine. Most of these
instruments were introduced from Russia. With the introduction of mass
production they became readily and cheaply available, having superior
acoustic properties when compared to the traditionally handcrafted
instruments. Thus many of these instruments began to replace the more
traditional Ukrainian folk instruments to the extent that many
traditional instruments disappeared. Examples of this are the
replacement of the torban and fretted kobza with the seven-stringed
guitar, the small fretted kobza with the mandolin, and later the
four-stringed domra. 

Most instruments however underwent changes to suit Ukrainian tastes in
music. Consequently, the balalaika received a different tuning and six
strings rather than the three it had in Russia. The domra received four
strings and a tuning in fifths rather than three strings and a tuning in

In recent times, the development of Ukrainian folk Instruments and the
reintroduction of traditional instruments to replace these foreign
instruments has become a major question. The orchestral four-string
kobza tuned in fifths, has been introduced to replace the four-string
domra. The seven-string kobza was designed to replace the seven-string
"Russian" guitar. These efforts however are being met with a certain
amount of opposition.

The Bayan-accordion

Originally the bayan was introduced into Eastern Ukraine from Russia in
the 1920's and into Western Ukraine after the WWII. It is now used
prolifically and has replaced many traditional Ukrainian folk
instruments many regions of Ukraine. The accordion was initially
introduced into Russia in the 1830's from Germany. It was developed into
its modern form by the St. Petersburg instrument maker P. Sterlingov in

The Balalaika

In Ukraine the balalaika was previously known as the "balabaika." It was
developed into a modern instrument by salon violinist Vasyl Andreev in
the 1880's after Andreev had seen Neapolitan mandolin orchestras in
Italy. His first balalaika was made in 1883. In 1889, after successful
performances in Paris, the instrument began to gain popularity in Russia
and Ukraine. The most famous contemporary balalaika virtuoso is the
Ukrainian Pavel Nechyporenko who hails from Chernihiv. There are no
longer any professional Russian Folk instrument orchestras in Ukraine,
and balalaika courses have either been discontinued or are being phased
out in conservatories in Ukraine.

The Domra

The four-stringed domra. The domra was also developed by Vasyl Andreev.
In 1895 a round bodied three-string instrument was discovered i n a
stable in Russia. Although later it was thought to have been a version
of the balalaika, it continued to be known as the domra. Initially given
a tuning in fourths that differed slightly from the tuning of the
balalaika. A mandolin-like technique was incorporated which used a
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