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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваWind instruments (Aerophones) (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Wind instruments (Aerophones)


The Luska


The luska is a very simple instrument made by cutting a thin plate from

the horn of a cow or by using a root from a birch tree. It is not

possible to play a scale on this "instrument," however rhythmic figures

around the melody are quite easy to produce. In recent times this

instrument has been replaced by pieces of clean photographic film cut to

the size of a safety razor. Placing the instrument between the bottom

lip and teeth, the player can produce a sound by blowing across it. The

upper teeth just touch the edge of the instrument. All one does to

obtain a high-pitched sound is to tighten the upper lip and blow.

Slackening the lip produces a lower sound. Another way to play the luska

is to place it on the lower lip and to suck air in against it.


The Whistle (Svystun)


This instrument is usually thought of as a child's toy and is used found

throughout Ukraine. It is usually made of clay in the form of an animal

such as a rooster, bird, horses or sheep. It has a hole to blow into and

sometimes side holes, which when opened and closed can change the pitch

of the note produced. On some instruments it is possible to play simple




Selection of whistles (Author collection.)


The Zozulka (Okaryna, Ocarina)


Originally invented about 1860 in Italy, the ocarina is a vessel flute

in the shape of an egg with ten finger-holes. The name in Italian means

"little goose." The Ukrainian ocarina belongs to the group of whistle

instruments and in fact is a sophisticated svystun. Usually these

instruments are made of clay with seven or eight and sometimes ten

finger-holes. The instrument is in widespread use in the Carpathian

Mountain area of Ukraine especially among the Hutsuls where it is known

as a zozulka: a name derived from the Ukrainian word for a small cuckoo




Zozulka - Author's instrument


The Sopilka family


The group of flute-like woodwind instruments is known generically as

"sopilkas" in Ukrainian. The use of this term however, has caused much

confusion in differentiating the various types of folk wind instruments.

This is because technically the term sopilka, by its meaning, should

only apply to a non-fipple folk-flute while the term dentsivka should

apply to instruments of the fipple variety. Unfortunately this is not

so, and great confusion surrounds the naming of these instruments.



Photo: Sopilka player (from Tovarystvo Ukraina)


The Sopilka (Frilka, Sopivka)


These are instruments that have no fipple or dentse. They consist of a

hollow pipe with six to ten holes. The pipe itself can be made of any

material, metal and plastic included. The usual number of holes is six

and additional holes allow chromatic notes to be easily produced on the

instrument. The important difference is the blowing end, where the

player must break his breath against the wall of the tube. This produces

a sound similar to that of the flute. The frilka is usually smaller than

the sopilka and has a higher sound, but is made in the same manner.

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