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НазваScotland (реферат)
АвторPetya
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Scotland

 

 

Northern Ireland Scotland and Wales Scotland elects 72 of the 651

members of the Commons. The Lords has limited power. Most of its members

are nobles who inherit their seats. For more information on the British

government see United Kingdom (Government).

 

The Scottish Office. Scotland’s chief minister is the secretary of state

for Scotland. This official is appointed by the prime minister and is a

member of the Cabinet.

 

The secretary’s office called the Scottish Office, is based in Edinburgh

with an additional office in London. The Scottish Office has five main

departments. The Scottish Office Agriculture and Fisheries Department

deals with Scotland’s agricultural and fishing industries. The Scottish

Office Industry Department deals with industrial and economic

development. The Scottish Office Environment Department is concerned

with such fields as environmental protection housing and public

utilities. The Scottish Office Education Department supervises public

education. The Scottish Office Home and Health Department is responsible

for criminal justice, police and fire protection prisons and public

health. Each department of the Scottish Office is run by a secretary.

 

Devolution. Most Scots believe that Scotland should have greater control

over its own affair's and they support some amount of devolution (the

granting of self-government). However the amount of self-government

desired differs among Scots Many want Scotland to be come an independent

country within the European community, an economic organization of

European nations. Many others believe that Scotland should have its own

legislative assembly while remaining a part of the United Kingdom. The

Scottish National Party favors independence. The Labour Party and the

Social and Liberal Democratic Party, which represent more than three

fourths of the Scottish members of Parliament, favor devolution within

the United Kingdom. The Conservative Party opposes independence or a

large degree of devolution.

 

People

 

Population. Scotland has a population of about 5 million. About three

fourths of the people live in the lowlands of central Scotland a region

that makes up only about a sixth of Scotland s mainland. The rugged

Highlands and the hilly uplands of southern Scotland are more sparsely

populated. The Highlands, which cover about two-thirds of the Scottish

mainland, have some of the most thinly populated areas in Scotland. Less

than 2 percent of the people live in Scotland s three island authority

areas of Orkney, Shetland, and the Western Isles.

 

One of Scotland’s major problems has been emigration. Particularly in

the 1960’s thousands of people left Scotland because of limited job

opportunities. But new industries, such as the production of oil from

the North Sea, have helped provide more jobs.

 

Ancestry. Most Scottish people are descended from peoples who came to

Scotland thousands of years ago. There groups included the Celts,

Scandinavians and a Celtic tribe from Ireland called the Scots. Each

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