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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваHistory of Kiev (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:

History of Kiev 



According to the ancient legend, Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, was
founded by three brothers, Kyi, Schek and Khoryv, and their sister
Lybed, at the end of the 5th-beginning of the 6th centuries. The city
was named after the eldest brother Kyi. Kyiv means the city of Kyi. Kyiv
is a Ukrainian spelling and Kiev is Russian, more known worldwide since
the Soviet times. 

Many ancient tribes gathered around Kiev, and at the end of the 9th
century the city became the political center of the Eastern Slavs. In
the year 988 Christianity, introduced by Great Prince Vladimir, became
the official religion of the Kievan Rus. This helped to establish
political and cultural relations with such states as the Byzantium
Empire and Bulgaria. At that time almost 50,000 people lived in the
city; there were about 400 churches and 8 markets. When Vladimir
Monomakh died in the year 1152, the mighty Kievan Rus began to decay. In
1240 Kiev was demolished by Baty-khan. Only in the 14th century Kiev
began to revive. But in 1362 Great Duke of Lithuania captured the city.
For more than one hundred years it was under the command of Lithuanian
and Polish dukes. People's liberation war of 1648-1654 against the
Lithuanian-Polish Yoke led to liberation. But Cossack armies, headed by
Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky, couldn't manage to conquer the enemy without
help from Russia. As a result, Ukraine plunged under a long period of
domination by the Russian Empire. Since that time the history of Ukraine
and Kiev was closely connected with Russian history. 

Archeological excavations show evidence of the first settlements on the
territory of Kiev 15,000 to 20,000 years ago. 


	The early settlers of Kiev built their citadel on the steep right bank
of the Dnepr River to protect themselves from Nomadic tribes. Later,
Kiev's Grand Dukes built their palaces and churches on Starokievskiy
Hill, while artisans and merchants settled next to the wharf on the
Dnepr. By the end of the 9th century, when the Grand Dukes of Kiev
united scattered Slavic tribes, Kiev became the political center of the
Eastern Slavs. The city maintained wide foreign and commercial trade
links due to its favorable position in the middle of trade routes
between the Vikings and the Greeks (strict way from Northern Europe and
the Baltics to the Mediterranean). Kiev`s development accelerated during
the reign of Grand Duke Vladimir the Great (980-1015). In 988 Vladimir
established Orthodox Christianity as the official religion of the realm
in order to strengthen the power of Kiev on the broader international
arena. During that time the first stone temple in Russia, Desyatinnaya
church, was constructed. 

During the 11th and 12th centuries ancient Kiev Rus reached its greatest
period of ascendancy. By the 11th century Kiev was one of the largest
centers of civilization in the Eastern christian world. At that time,
there were about 400 churches, 8 markets and more than 50,000
inhabitants in Kiev. For comparison, at the same time the population of
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