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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваHistory of Kiev (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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History of Kiev




According to the ancient legend, Kiev, the capital of Ukraine, was

founded by three brothers, Kyi, Schek and Khoryv, and their sister

Lybed, at the end of the 5th-beginning of the 6th centuries. The city

was named after the eldest brother Kyi. Kyiv means the city of Kyi. Kyiv

is a Ukrainian spelling and Kiev is Russian, more known worldwide since

the Soviet times.


Many ancient tribes gathered around Kiev, and at the end of the 9th

century the city became the political center of the Eastern Slavs. In

the year 988 Christianity, introduced by Great Prince Vladimir, became

the official religion of the Kievan Rus. This helped to establish

political and cultural relations with such states as the Byzantium

Empire and Bulgaria. At that time almost 50,000 people lived in the

city; there were about 400 churches and 8 markets. When Vladimir

Monomakh died in the year 1152, the mighty Kievan Rus began to decay. In

1240 Kiev was demolished by Baty-khan. Only in the 14th century Kiev

began to revive. But in 1362 Great Duke of Lithuania captured the city.

For more than one hundred years it was under the command of Lithuanian

and Polish dukes. People's liberation war of 1648-1654 against the

Lithuanian-Polish Yoke led to liberation. But Cossack armies, headed by

Hetman Bogdan Khmelnitsky, couldn't manage to conquer the enemy without

help from Russia. As a result, Ukraine plunged under a long period of

domination by the Russian Empire. Since that time the history of Ukraine

and Kiev was closely connected with Russian history.


Archeological excavations show evidence of the first settlements on the

territory of Kiev 15,000 to 20,000 years ago.



The early settlers of Kiev built their citadel on the steep right bank

of the Dnepr River to protect themselves from Nomadic tribes. Later,

Kiev's Grand Dukes built their palaces and churches on Starokievskiy

Hill, while artisans and merchants settled next to the wharf on the

Dnepr. By the end of the 9th century, when the Grand Dukes of Kiev

united scattered Slavic tribes, Kiev became the political center of the

Eastern Slavs. The city maintained wide foreign and commercial trade

links due to its favorable position in the middle of trade routes

between the Vikings and the Greeks (strict way from Northern Europe and

the Baltics to the Mediterranean). Kiev`s development accelerated during

the reign of Grand Duke Vladimir the Great (980-1015). In 988 Vladimir

established Orthodox Christianity as the official religion of the realm

in order to strengthen the power of Kiev on the broader international

arena. During that time the first stone temple in Russia, Desyatinnaya

church, was constructed.


During the 11th and 12th centuries ancient Kiev Rus reached its greatest

period of ascendancy. By the 11th century Kiev was one of the largest

centers of civilization in the Eastern christian world. At that time,

there were about 400 churches, 8 markets and more than 50,000

inhabitants in Kiev. For comparison, at the same time the population of

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