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НазваInterethnic Relations and Ethnic Tolerance in Ukraine. (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Interethnic Relations and Ethnic Tolerance in Ukraine.

InDepth Analytical Report   HYPERLINK
"file:///C:\\Documents%20and%20Settings\\BG\\Рабочий%20стол\\politicon.i\\paninarelat.htm" \l "1#1"  [1]  

Рабочий%20стол\\\\paninarelat.htm" \l "2#2"   [2] 

A certain level of tolerance towards members of various social groups,
to which an individual does not belong, is a psychological basis of any
social partnership.

In a situation of heightened social tension (caused by an economic slump
and a struggle of different political forces for power), tolerance of
members of one ethnic group towards other ethnic groups is regarded as a
most important factor, if not of societal stabilization then, at least
of prevention of civil war or murderous interethnic clashes, which a
number of republics of the FSU (Azerbaidzhan, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova,
Tadzhikistan, Kirgizstan, Uzbekistan, the Ossetiyaningushetian conflict
in Russia) failed to avoid.

Numerous sociological polls, conducted by the central Ukrainian branch
of the AllUnion Centre for Public Opinion Research and the Institute for
Sociology with Ukraine’s National Academy of Sciences in 1989–1991,
included some questions which touched, to a varying degree, upon
problems of interethnic relations. The data obtained did not reveal any
widespread pronounced nationalist attitudes among the population of most
regions of Ukraine. Despite this, however, and despite the absence of
outbursts of interethnic strife in Ukraine, public opinion polls
typically register a hrefigh level of anxiety among the population about
the possibility of interethnic conflict: in all the polls on issues of
utmost concern for the population, the problem of likely interethnic
feuds figured most prominently among stresscausing factors.

The peak of concern about possible interethnic conflicts was registered
in 1992, when almost half of Ukraine’s adult population (49%) named the
possibility of interethnic conflicts as one of the major problems they
were most apprehensive of. At the same time, the share of people who
found themselves involved in conflicts triggered by disrespect for
national/ethnic dignity, remained at the same level (about 3%).
Discrepancies between the extent of personal experience of interethnic
confrontation and the growth of concern about possible interethnic
conflict seem to be explained, first and foremost, by outbreaks of
interethnic strife in other regions of the former Soviet Union rather
than by the way interethnic conflicts developed in Ukraine and policies
pursued by the leadership with regard to ethnic groups. However, in
order to prognosticate possible paths of development of interethnic
relations in Ukraine and, most importantly, to be able to spot in
advance probable factors of heightened interethnic tensions, one should
have much more evidence than some fragmentary data obtained in response
to a few individual questions, included, as a rule, into prompt topical
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