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НазваInterethnic Relations and Ethnic Tolerance in Ukraine. (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат з англійської мови


Interethnic Relations and Ethnic Tolerance in Ukraine.


InDepth Analytical Report HYPERLINK

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The transition from Isolationist (territorial, social, and mental)

principles of social system functioning to principles of openness and

cooperation is one of the most important preconditions of transforming a

closed (traditionalcommunitarian or totalitarian) society into an open

democratic society HYPERLINK

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A certain level of tolerance towards members of various social groups,

to which an individual does not belong, is a psychological basis of any

social partnership.


In a situation of heightened social tension (caused by an economic slump

and a struggle of different political forces for power), tolerance of

members of one ethnic group towards other ethnic groups is regarded as a

most important factor, if not of societal stabilization then, at least

of prevention of civil war or murderous interethnic clashes, which a

number of republics of the FSU (Azerbaidzhan, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova,

Tadzhikistan, Kirgizstan, Uzbekistan, the Ossetiyaningushetian conflict

in Russia) failed to avoid.


Numerous sociological polls, conducted by the central Ukrainian branch

of the AllUnion Centre for Public Opinion Research and the Institute for

Sociology with Ukraine’s National Academy of Sciences in 1989–1991,

included some questions which touched, to a varying degree, upon

problems of interethnic relations. The data obtained did not reveal any

widespread pronounced nationalist attitudes among the population of most

regions of Ukraine. Despite this, however, and despite the absence of

outbursts of interethnic strife in Ukraine, public opinion polls

typically register a hrefigh level of anxiety among the population about

the possibility of interethnic conflict: in all the polls on issues of

utmost concern for the population, the problem of likely interethnic

feuds figured most prominently among stresscausing factors.


The peak of concern about possible interethnic conflicts was registered

in 1992, when almost half of Ukraine’s adult population (49%) named the

possibility of interethnic conflicts as one of the major problems they

were most apprehensive of. At the same time, the share of people who

found themselves involved in conflicts triggered by disrespect for

national/ethnic dignity, remained at the same level (about 3%).

Discrepancies between the extent of personal experience of interethnic

confrontation and the growth of concern about possible interethnic

conflict seem to be explained, first and foremost, by outbreaks of

interethnic strife in other regions of the former Soviet Union rather

than by the way interethnic conflicts developed in Ukraine and policies

pursued by the leadership with regard to ethnic groups. However, in

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