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Реферат на тему:

 

Cardiovascular system

 

THE CIRCULATORY (CARDIOVASCULAR)

 

SYSTEM

 

The cardiovascular system is the system of blood circulation. Hence, by

the cardiovascular system is meant the heart, the artheries, the veins,

and capillaries of the human body. Basically the heart is a hollow

muscle which is divided into four chambers. The right heart consists of

an upper chamber called an atrium (with the auricle) and a lower chamber

called a ventricle. Between these two chambers is a one-way valve,

called the tricuspid valve. The left heart has two similar chambers, but

the valve that separates its chambers is called the mitral valve.

Although the heart is a unit, anatomically and functionally, it can be

thought of as two isolated pumps - the “right heart” and the “left

heart”. Normally the only route of communication between these two parts

of the heart is the lung. The right heart, receives blood from the veins

and pumps it into the lung by way of the lesser circulatory system. In

the lung the blood is supplied with oxygen. Then it moves into the left

heart. From the left heart the we 11-oxygenated blood is pumped into a

large artery called the aorta, which distributes it to the entire body

by means of the greater circulatory system. The blood is returned to the

heart by means of the veins. A continuous circulation is thus kept up.

The walls of the capillaries are so thin that the dissolved nourishment,

which comes from the digestive system, and the oxygen, which comes from

the lungs and is contained in the blood, can pass through them into the

tissues of the body and so nourish it, while the impurities from the

tissues are taken up by the capillaries and are carried away in the

blood. The capillaries from a close net-work all over the body, and

gradually joining together and getting larger, they become veins.

 

The blood is a red fluid, which coagulates when it escapes from a blood

vessel. It consists of colourless fluid, called plasma or serum, and

many millions of minute bodies, too small to be seen by the naked eye,

which give the blood its j colour and substance, the corpuscles.

 

The cardiovascular system is the system of blood circulation. Normally

the only route of communication between these two parts of the heart is

the lung. The right heart, receives blood from the veins and pumps it

into the lung by way of the lesser circulatory system. In the lung the

blood is supplied with oxygen. The blood is returned to the heart by

means of the veins. The walls of the capillaries are so thin that the

dissolved nourishment, which comes from the digestive system, and the

oxygen, which comes from the lungs and is contained in the blood, can

pass through them into the tissues of the body and so nourish it, while

the impurities from the tissues are taken up by the capillaries and are

carried away in the blood. The capillaries from a close net-work all

over the body, and gradually joining together and getting larger, they

become veins. The blood is a red fluid, which coagulates when it escapes

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