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НазваПрактика перекладу: Механізм фінансування окремих робіт (курсова робота)
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Практика перекладу: Механізм фінансування окремих робіт



"...Assistance to creation of the infrastructure to small business

From the National Programme to Support Small Entrepreneurship
Development in Ukraine


A fundamental issue facing any support mechanism for support of
enterprise is how to fund it. In most instances there are typically two
main sources of funds that may be available: internally generated
revenues (from selling products and services to clients); and external
funds (through grants, loans, subsidies etc. of governmental bodies or
donor organizations).

An important principle underpinning much governmental or donor support
is that organizations should evolve and move towards sustainability over
time. A consequence of this is that the ratio between the proportion of
overall funding contributed by internally- and externally generated
funding will typically move towards an increasing reliance on
self-generated internal sources of funding on the part of an enterprise
support organization. Financing mechanisms therefore need to be designed
to explicitly address this requirement. Activity Based Funding is one
such method that can be used. It is a financing concept and mechanism
that was developed for the Ukrainian Network of Agencies for Development
of Enterprise (ADEs).

The development of the Ukrainian Network of Agencies for Development of
Enterprise (ADEs) faced the problem of how new agencies could best be
set up and financed as it sought to achieve a rapid geographic
expansion. Whilst the first of the ADEs were traditional, fully donor
funded business support centers, encouragement of small consultancy
practices to join the network led to all its members, including the
early business centers, becoming subject to a system of payment for
activities undertaken - Activity Based Funding.

Instead of fully financing an Agency, ABF was linked directly to
mutually agreed types and volumes of activities undertaken by each
agency. Payment was made on the basis of the agreed level of activities
being met (but not exceeded) given that all agreed activities (e.g. type
of course, target group, planned output etc) were met.

The merits of this funding system are that activities and outputs are
clearly linked. Further it is a system that allows for funding of
external client delivery, as well as internal organizational
development. One of the great advantages is that it offered great
flexibility in funding activities in ADEs.

As the network matured it has developed a shared portfolio of services,
with each individual agency securing its own SME customer base. Over
time the ABF concept has been modified, eventually moving to Fixed Price


In principle there were 3 different types of financing mechanisms used
for ADEs

Full funding — by the funding donor — of me

activities of an ADE (usually for two — three
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