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НазваПрактика перекладу: Механізм фінансування окремих робіт (курсова робота)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуКурсова
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Практика перекладу: Механізм фінансування окремих робіт






"...Assistance to creation of the infrastructure to small business



From the National Programme to Support Small Entrepreneurship

Development in Ukraine




A fundamental issue facing any support mechanism for support of

enterprise is how to fund it. In most instances there are typically two

main sources of funds that may be available: internally generated

revenues (from selling products and services to clients); and external

funds (through grants, loans, subsidies etc. of governmental bodies or

donor organizations).


An important principle underpinning much governmental or donor support

is that organizations should evolve and move towards sustainability over

time. A consequence of this is that the ratio between the proportion of

overall funding contributed by internally- and externally generated

funding will typically move towards an increasing reliance on

self-generated internal sources of funding on the part of an enterprise

support organization. Financing mechanisms therefore need to be designed

to explicitly address this requirement. Activity Based Funding is one

such method that can be used. It is a financing concept and mechanism

that was developed for the Ukrainian Network of Agencies for Development

of Enterprise (ADEs).


The development of the Ukrainian Network of Agencies for Development of

Enterprise (ADEs) faced the problem of how new agencies could best be

set up and financed as it sought to achieve a rapid geographic

expansion. Whilst the first of the ADEs were traditional, fully donor

funded business support centers, encouragement of small consultancy

practices to join the network led to all its members, including the

early business centers, becoming subject to a system of payment for

activities undertaken - Activity Based Funding.


Instead of fully financing an Agency, ABF was linked directly to

mutually agreed types and volumes of activities undertaken by each

agency. Payment was made on the basis of the agreed level of activities

being met (but not exceeded) given that all agreed activities (e.g. type

of course, target group, planned output etc) were met.


The merits of this funding system are that activities and outputs are

clearly linked. Further it is a system that allows for funding of

external client delivery, as well as internal organizational

development. One of the great advantages is that it offered great

flexibility in funding activities in ADEs.


As the network matured it has developed a shared portfolio of services,

with each individual agency securing its own SME customer base. Over

time the ABF concept has been modified, eventually moving to Fixed Price





In principle there were 3 different types of financing mechanisms used

for ADEs


Full funding — by the funding donor — of me


activities of an ADE (usually for two — three

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