найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

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НазваThe human body (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:


The human body


The human body consists of three parts. They are the head, the trunk

and the limbs. There are many bones of different sizes and shapes in the

skeleton. The bones are connected together by the cartilages, the

ligaments and joints. The joints allow the bones to move.


The main part of tin; head is called the skull. The bones of the skull

are composed of cranial and facial parts. The skull encloses the brain.

The forehead, the temples, the cheeks, the cheekbones, the two jaws and

the mouth compose the face. The teeth and the tongue are lodged in the

mouth. One chews food with the teeth and tastes food with the tongue.

The lips are the two margins of the mouth. We see with the eyes, breathe

and smell with the nose and hear with ears.


The trunk consists of the spine, the chest and the pelvic bones. In the

spine there are many vertebrae. They are cervical, thoracic, lumbar,

sacral vertebrae and the соссух. The trunk is divided into two large

cavities by diaphragm. The upper cavity of the trunk is called thorax

and the lower one is called the belly. In the middle of the thorax (the

chest) there is a long bone the breastbone by name. The ribs are

connected with the breastbone by cartilages, the lungs and the heart are

located above the diaphragm in the upper cavity. In the lower cavity

(abdominal cavity) we find interior organs such as stomach, liver,

urinary bladder, gallbladder, kidneys, spleen and intestines (bowels).

There are two nipples on the chest, and, in women, the breasts with the

teats. There is the navel in the middle of the abdomen. At the lowest

part of the abdomen there are genitals (the external reproductive



The upper limb (extremity) is divided into the shoulder, the upper arm,

the forearm and the hand. The joint between upper arm and forearm we

call the elbow. The wrist is the joint between forearm and hand. Each

hand has five fingers: index (fore-finger), middle finger, ring finger,

little finger and a thumb.


The lower limb consists of the thigh-bone (the femur), the shin-bone

(the tibia) and the fibula. We call the calf the back of the lower leg.

The joint between the femur and the lower leg is called the knee-joint.

This joint is protected by the knee-cap (the patella). The joints

between lower legs and feet are the ankles. The foot consists of heel,

sole and toes.


The muscles form about 40 per cent of the body weight. They are

subdivided into three groups. These groups are the muscles of the trunk,

head and extremities. There are about 600 skeletal muscles. As far as

their form is concerned they can be long, wide and short. The long

muscles compose the free extremities, the wide ones lay, on the trunk

and form the walls of the body cavities. The short muscles are not

numerous. Some of them form facial muscles. Muscles are attached to

bones, internal organs and blood vessels. They allow us to make an

internal or external movement due to their contraction and relaxation.


As for the structure of the muscles there are also three types of them:

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