найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваRaphael (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Self-portrait by Raphael.


Raphael or Raffaello ( HYPERLINK ""

\o "April 6" April 6 , 1483 – HYPERLINK

"" \o "April 6" April 6 ,

HYPERLINK "" \o "1520" 1520 ) was a

master HYPERLINK "" \o "Painter"

painter and HYPERLINK "" \o

"Architect" architect of the HYPERLINK

"" \o "Florence" Florentine

school in the HYPERLINK "" \o

"Italy" Italian HYPERLINK

"" \o "High Renaissance"

High Renaissance , celebrated for the perfection and softness of his

paintings. He was also called Raffaello Sanzio, Raffaello Santi,

Raffaello da Urbino or Rafael Sanzio da Urbino.




The surname Sanzio derives from the HYPERLINK

"" \o "Latinization"

latinization of the Italian, Santi, into Santius (also, when signing

solely using his baptismal name, "Raphael"). His father, Santi Giovanni,

was also a painter in the court of HYPERLINK

"" \o "Urbino" Urbino .


In 1491 his mother Magia died and his father then died on 1 August 1494.

Thus orphaned at eleven, Raffaello was entrusted to his uncle

Bartolomeo, a priest. He had already shown talent, as recounted by his

contemporary Giorgio Vasari - he tells that since childhood Raphael had

been "a great help to his father". Unfortunately it is not known

precisely how Raphael assisted and, lacking any documentation on this

part of his life, his formative phase remains unknown.


Nevertheless, in Urbino he came into contact with the works of

HYPERLINK "" \o "Uccello" Uccello

and HYPERLINK "" \o

"Signorelli" Signorelli . The most obvious influence on his early first

works is that of Pietro Vannucci, aka HYPERLINK

"" \o "Perugino" Perugino .

According to Vasari, on a trip to Perugia with his father, Raphael

impressed Perugino.


His first documented work was an altarpiece for the church of San Nicola

of Tolentino in Citta di Castello, a town halfway between Perugia and

Urbino. It was ordered in 1500 and finished in 1501 (it was later

seriously damaged during an earthquake in 1789 and today only fragments

of it remain). In the following years he painted works for other

churches there (like the Wedding of the Virgin, today at Brera) and for



In 1504 he went to Florence, where he learned lessons from HYPERLINK

"" \o "Leonardo da Vinci"

Leonardo da Vinci and HYPERLINK

"" \o "Michelangelo"

Michelangelo . He spent almost four years there (the so-called

"Florentine period"), but continued to travel to and work in other

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