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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваRaphael (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Self-portrait by Raphael.

Raphael or Raffaello (  HYPERLINK ""
\o "April 6"  April 6 , 1483 –   HYPERLINK
"" \o "April 6"  April 6 ,  
HYPERLINK "" \o "1520"  1520 ) was a
master   HYPERLINK "" \o "Painter" 
painter  and   HYPERLINK "" \o
"Architect"  architect  of the   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Florence"  Florentine 
school in the   HYPERLINK "" \o
"Italy"  Italian    HYPERLINK
"" \o "High Renaissance" 
High Renaissance , celebrated for the perfection and softness of his
paintings. He was also called Raffaello Sanzio, Raffaello Santi,
Raffaello da Urbino or Rafael Sanzio da Urbino. 


The surname Sanzio derives from the   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Latinization" 
latinization  of the Italian, Santi, into Santius (also, when signing
solely using his baptismal name, "Raphael"). His father, Santi Giovanni,
was also a painter in the court of   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Urbino"  Urbino .

In 1491 his mother Mаgia died and his father then died on 1 August 1494.
Thus orphaned at eleven, Raffaello was entrusted to his uncle
Bartolomeo, a priest. He had already shown talent, as recounted by his
contemporary Giorgio Vasari - he tells that since childhood Raphael had
been "a great help to his father". Unfortunately it is not known
precisely how Raphael assisted and, lacking any documentation on this
part of his life, his formative phase remains unknown.

Nevertheless, in Urbino he came into contact with the works of  
HYPERLINK "" \o "Uccello"  Uccello 
and   HYPERLINK "" \o
"Signorelli"  Signorelli . The most obvious influence on his early first
works is that of Pietro Vannucci, aka   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Perugino"  Perugino .
According to Vasari, on a trip to Perugia with his father, Raphael
impressed Perugino.

His first documented work was an altarpiece for the church of San Nicola
of Tolentino in Cittа di Castello, a town halfway between Perugia and
Urbino. It was ordered in 1500 and finished in 1501 (it was later
seriously damaged during an earthquake in 1789 and today only fragments
of it remain). In the following years he painted works for other
churches there (like the Wedding of the Virgin, today at Brera) and for

In 1504 he went to Florence, where he learned lessons from   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Leonardo da Vinci" 
Leonardo da Vinci  and   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Michelangelo" 
Michelangelo . He spent almost four years there (the so-called
"Florentine period"), but continued to travel to and work in other
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