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НазваXenophobia, racism, discrimination, putsch, terrorism (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:

Xenophobia, racism, discrimination, putsch, terrorism.


Xenophobia denotes a   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Phobic attitude" 
phobic attitude  toward strangers or of the unknown. It comes from the  
HYPERLINK "" \o "Greek
language"  Greek  words ????? (xenos), meaning "foreigner," "stranger,"
and ????? (phobos), meaning "fear." The term is typically used to
describe fear or dislike of   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Alien (law)" 
foreigners  or in general of people different from one's self. For
example,   HYPERLINK "" \o "Racism" 
racism  is sometimes described as a form of xenophobia, but in most
cases racism has nothing to do with a real   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Phobia"  phobia . Xenophobia
implies a belief, accurate or not, that the target is in some way
foreign. Prejudice against women cannot be considered xenophobic in this
sense, except in the limited case of all-male clubs or institutions. The
term   HYPERLINK "" \o
"Xenophilia"  xenophilia  is used for the opposite behavior, attraction
to or love for foreign persons.

"" \o
"American Psychiatric Association"  American Psychiatric Association 's 
 HYPERLINK "" \o "DSM-IV"  Diagnostic
and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th edition ("DSM-IV")
includes in its description of a   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Phobia"  phobia  an "intense
anxiety" which follows exposure to the "object of the phobia, either in
real life or via imagination or video..." For xenophobia there are two
main objects of the phobia. The first is a population group present
within a society, which is not considered part of that society. Often
they are recent   HYPERLINK ""
\o "Immigration"  immigrants , but xenophobia may be directed against a
group which has been present for centuries. This form of xenophobia can
elicit or facilitate hostile and violent reactions, such as mass
expulsion of immigrants, or in the worst case,   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Genocide"  genocide .

The second form of xenophobia is primarily cultural, and the objects of
the phobia are cultural elements which are considered alien. All
cultures are subject to external influences, but cultural xenophobia is
often narrowly directed, for instance at foreign loan words in a
national language. It rarely leads to aggression against persons, but
can result in political campaigns for cultural or linguistic
purification.   HYPERLINK "" \o
"Isolationism"  Isolationism , a general aversion of foreign affairs, is
not accurately described as xenophobia. Additionally, in the world of  
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