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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваXenophobia, racism, discrimination, putsch, terrorism (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:


Xenophobia, racism, discrimination, putsch, terrorism.




Xenophobia denotes a HYPERLINK

"" \o "Phobic attitude"

phobic attitude toward strangers or of the unknown. It comes from the

HYPERLINK "" \o "Greek

language" Greek words ????? (xenos), meaning "foreigner," "stranger,"

and ????? (phobos), meaning "fear." The term is typically used to

describe fear or dislike of HYPERLINK

"" \o "Alien (law)"

foreigners or in general of people different from one's self. For

example, HYPERLINK "" \o "Racism"

racism is sometimes described as a form of xenophobia, but in most

cases racism has nothing to do with a real HYPERLINK

"" \o "Phobia" phobia . Xenophobia

implies a belief, accurate or not, that the target is in some way

foreign. Prejudice against women cannot be considered xenophobic in this

sense, except in the limited case of all-male clubs or institutions. The

term HYPERLINK "" \o

"Xenophilia" xenophilia is used for the opposite behavior, attraction

to or love for foreign persons.



"" \o

"American Psychiatric Association" American Psychiatric Association 's

HYPERLINK "" \o "DSM-IV" Diagnostic

and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders , 4th edition ("DSM-IV")

includes in its description of a HYPERLINK

"" \o "Phobia" phobia an "intense

anxiety" which follows exposure to the "object of the phobia, either in

real life or via imagination or video..." For xenophobia there are two

main objects of the phobia. The first is a population group present

within a society, which is not considered part of that society. Often

they are recent HYPERLINK ""

\o "Immigration" immigrants , but xenophobia may be directed against a

group which has been present for centuries. This form of xenophobia can

elicit or facilitate hostile and violent reactions, such as mass

expulsion of immigrants, or in the worst case, HYPERLINK

"" \o "Genocide" genocide .


The second form of xenophobia is primarily cultural, and the objects of

the phobia are cultural elements which are considered alien. All

cultures are subject to external influences, but cultural xenophobia is

often narrowly directed, for instance at foreign loan words in a

national language. It rarely leads to aggression against persons, but

can result in political campaigns for cultural or linguistic

purification. HYPERLINK "" \o

"Isolationism" Isolationism , a general aversion of foreign affairs, is

not accurately described as xenophobia. Additionally, in the world of

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