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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваBritish Economy (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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British Economy


The United Kingdom is one of the world’s largest exporters of

manufactured goods per head of population. For every person employed in

agriculture eleven people are employed in mining, manufacturing and



Apart from coal and iron ore Britain has very few natural resources. Its

agriculture provides only half the food it needs. Most of if the raw

materials such as oil and various metals (copper zinc, uranium ore and

others) have to be imported. Britain also has to import timber, cotton,

fruit and farm products.


Britain used to be richly forested, but most of the forests were cut

down to make more room for cultivation. The greater part of land is used

for cattle and sheep breeding, and pig raising. Among the crops grown on

the farms are wheat, barley and oats. The fields are mainly in the

eastern part of the country. Most of the farms are small. Farms tend to

be bigger where the soil is less fertile.


Britain produces high quality expensive goods, which has always been

characteristic of its industry. A shortage of raw materials, as well as

the high cost of production makes it unprofitable for British industry

to produce semi-finished goods or cheap articles. Britain mostly

produces articles, requiring skilled labour, precision instruments,

chemicals. Britain high quality consumer goods and articles made of

various kinds of synthetic (man-made) materials.


The original basis of British industry was coal mining, and the early

factories grew up not far from the main mining areas.


Glasgow and Newcastle became great centres of engineering and

shipbuilding . Lancashire produced cotton goods and Yorkshire woollens ,

with Sheffield concentrating on iron and steel. Birmingham developed

light engineering. There appeared a tendency for industry and population

to move to the south, particularly to the London area. Britain’s

industry is now widely dispersed. Great progress was made in the

development of new industries, such as the aircraft, automobile,

electronic industries and others. A number of atomic power reactors were



Great emphasis was made on the development of the war industry .




1. manufactured goods – промислові товари


2. per head of population – на душу населення


3. apart of smth. – крім чогось


4. used to be smth. – був кимось колись


5. used to do smth. – робив щось колись


6. to make room for smth. – звільняти простір (місце) для чогось


7. to breed smth. – розводити, вирощувати (тварин)


8. to tend to do smth. – мати тенденцію робити щось


9. article – виріб, товар, предмет виробництва


10. to require smth. (doing smth.) – вимагати, потребувати чогось

(робити щось)


11. precision instruments – точні інструменти


12. to be widely dispersed – широко розповсюджуватись


13. to make emphasis on smth. – надавати чомусь особливого значення ,

приділяти комусь особливу увагу