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НазваNatural wonders (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Natural wonders


Similar to the other lists of wonders, there is no consensus on a list

of seven natural wonders of the world, as there has been debate over how

large the list should be. One of the many lists was compiled by CNN:


Grand Canyon


Great Barrier Reef


Harbor of Rio de Janeiro


Mount Everest


Polar Aurora


Paricutin volcano


Victoria Falls


The Grand Canyon is a very colorful, steep-sided gorge, carved by the

Colorado River, in the U.S. state of Arizona. It is largely contained

within the Grand Canyon National Park — one of the first national parks

in the United States. President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent

of the Grand Canyon area, visiting on numerous occasions to hunt and

enjoy the scenery.


The canyon, created by the Colorado River cutting a channel over

millions of years, is about 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width

from 0.25 to 15 miles (0.4 to 24 kilometers), and attains a depth of

more than a mile (1 km). Nearly two billion years of the Earth's history

has been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut through

layer after layer of sediment as the Colorado Plateaus have uplifted.


The first recorded sighting of the Grand Canyon by a European was in

1540, Garcia Lopez de Cardenas from Spain. Grand Canyon was largely

unknown until after the U.S. Civil War. In 1869, Major John Wesley

Powell, a one-armed Civil War veteran with a thirst for science and

adventure, made a pioneering journey through the canyon on the Colorado

River. He accomplished this with nine men in four small wooden boats,

though only six men completed the journey. His party was, as far as we

know, the first ever to make such a trip. Powell referred to the

sedimentary rock units exposed in the canyon as "leaves in a great story

book". Long before that, the area was inhabited by Native Americans who

built settlements within the canyon walls and its many caves.


The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system,

composed of roughly 3,000 individual reefs and 900 islands that stretch

for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) and cover an area of approximately

344,400 km?. The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of

Queensland in northeast Australia. A large part of the reef is protected

by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park.


The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from outer space and is sometimes

referred to as the single largest organism in the world. In reality, it

is made up of many millions of tiny organisms, known as coral polyps.

The Great Barrier Reef supports a wide diversity of life and was

selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981.CNN has labelled it one of the

seven natural wonders of the world. The Queensland National Trust has

named it a state icon of Queensland.


The Great Barrier Reef's environmental pressures include water quality

from runoff, climate change and mass coral bleaching, cyclic outbreaks

of the crown-of-thorns starfish, overfishing, and shipping accidents.


Rio de Janeiro (IPA: Portuguese: "River of January"; is the name of

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