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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваBribery is a crime (реферат)
АвторPetya
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Реферат на тему:

 

Bribery is a crime

 

Bribery is a crime implying a sum or gift given alters the behavior of

the person in ways not consistent with the duties of that person. It is

defined by Black's Law Dictionary as the offering, giving, receiving, or

soliciting of any item of value to influence the actions as an official

or other person in discharge of a public or legal duty. The bribe is the

gift bestowed to influence the receiver's conduct. It may be any money,

good, right in action, property, preferment, privilege, emolument,

object of value, advantage, or any promise or undertaking to induce or

influence the action, vote, or influence of a person in an official or

public capacity.

 

It is a form of political corruption and is generally considered

unethical. In most jurisdictions it is illegal, or at least cause for

sanctions from one's employer or professional organization.

 

For example, a motorist may bribe a police officer not to issue a ticket

for speeding, a citizen seeking paperwork or utility line connections

may bribe a functionary for faster service, a construction company may

bribe a civil servant to award a contract, or a narcotics smuggler may

bribe a judge to lessen criminal penalties.

 

In some cases, the briber holds a powerful role and controls the

transaction; in other cases, a bribe may be effectively extracted from

the person paying it.

 

Expectations of when a monetary transaction is appropriate can also

differ: tipping, for example, is considered bribery in some societies,

while in others the two concepts may be interchangeable. In Spanish,

bribes are referred to as "la mordida" (literally, "the bite"), in

middle eastern countries they are Backshish or Bakshish.

 

The level of non-monetary favours that constitute an incentive to

unethical behaviour is variable and may constitute a matter of opinion

in a given field:

 

Music

 

Payola is the commonplace practice where record companies buy air time

from radio and television stations for songs they are promoting.

 

Government

 

A grey area may exist when payments to smooth transactions are made.

United States law is particularly strict in limiting the ability of

businesses to pay for the awarding of contracts by foreign governments;

however, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act contains an exception for

"grease payments"; very basically, this allows payments to officials in

order to obtain the performance of ministerial acts which they are

legally required to do, but may delay in the absence of such payment. In

some countries, this practice is the norm, often resulting from a

developing nation not having the tax structure to pay civil servants an

adequate salary. Nevertheless, most economists regard bribery as a bad

thing because it encourages rent seeking behaviour. A state where

bribery has become a way of life is a kleptocracy.

 

Medicine

 

Pharmaceutical corporations may seek to reward doctors for heavy

prescription of their drugs through gifts. The American Medical

Association has published ethical guidelines for gifts from industry

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