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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваCloning (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of something. In

HYPERLINK "" \o "Biology" Biology ,

it collectively refers to processes used to create copies of HYPERLINK

"" \o "DNA" DNA fragments (Molecular

Cloning), HYPERLINK ""

\o "Cell (biology)" cells (Cell Cloning), or HYPERLINK

"" \o "Organisms" organisms . The

term also encompases situations, whereby organisms reproduce HYPERLINK

"" \o "Asexual

reproduction" asexually , but in common parlance refers to

intentionally created copies of organisms.




The term clone is derived from ????, the HYPERLINK

"" \o "Greek language" Greek

word for "twig", referring to the process, whereby a new plant can be

created from a twig. In HYPERLINK

"" \o "Horticulture"

horticulture , the spelling clon was used until the twentieth century;

the final e came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead of

a "short o". Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more

general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively.


Molecular cloning


Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA

sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it HYPERLINK

"" \o "In vivo" in vivo . Cloning

is frequently employed to amplify DNA fragments containing HYPERLINK

"" \o "Genes" genes , but it can be

used to amplify any DNA sequence such as HYPERLINK

"" \o "Promoters" promoters ,

non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. It is utilised in a

wide array of biological experiments and practical applications such as

large scale protein production. Occasionally, the term cloning is

misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the HYPERLINK

"" \o "Chromosome" chromosomal

location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest,

such as in positional cloning. In practice, localization of the gene to

a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to

isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence.


In essence, in order to amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism

that sequence must be linked to an HYPERLINK

"" \o "Origin of

replication" origin of replication , a sequence element capable of

directing the propagation of its self and any linked sequence. In

practice, however, a number of other features are desired and a variety

of specialised cloning HYPERLINK

"" \o "Vectors" vectors exist that

allow protein expression, tagging, single stranded HYPERLINK

"" \o "RNA" RNA and DNA production and

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