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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваCloning (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of something. In  
HYPERLINK "" \o "Biology"  Biology ,
it collectively refers to processes used to create copies of   HYPERLINK
"" \o "DNA"  DNA  fragments (Molecular
Cloning),   HYPERLINK ""
\o "Cell (biology)"  cells  (Cell Cloning), or   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Organisms"  organisms . The
term also encompases situations, whereby organisms reproduce   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Asexual
reproduction"  asexually , but in common parlance refers to
intentionally created copies of organisms.


The term clone is derived from ????, the   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Greek language"  Greek
 word for "twig", referring to the process, whereby a new plant can be
created from a twig. In   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Horticulture" 
horticulture , the spelling clon was used until the twentieth century;
the final e came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead of
a "short o". Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more
general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively.

Molecular cloning

Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA
sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it   HYPERLINK
"" \o "In vivo"  in vivo . Cloning
is frequently employed to amplify DNA fragments containing   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Genes"  genes , but it can be
used to amplify any DNA sequence such as   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Promoters"  promoters ,
non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. It is utilised in a
wide array of biological experiments and practical applications such as
large scale protein production. Occasionally, the term cloning is
misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Chromosome"  chromosomal 
location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest,
such as in positional cloning. In practice, localization of the gene to
a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to
isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence.

In essence, in order to amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism
that sequence must be linked to an   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Origin of
replication"  origin of replication , a sequence element capable of
directing the propagation of its self and any linked sequence. In
practice, however, a number of other features are desired and a variety
of specialised cloning   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Vectors"  vectors  exist that
allow protein expression, tagging, single stranded   HYPERLINK
"" \o "RNA"  RNA  and DNA production and
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