UkrReferat.com
найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

Всього в базі: 75843
останнє поновлення: 2016-12-04
за 7 днів додано 10

Реферати на українській
Реферати на російській
Українські підручники

$ Робота на замовлення
Реклама на сайті
Зворотній зв'язок

 

ПОШУК:   

реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваCloning (реферат)
АвторPetya
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
Продивилось1960
Скачало189
Опис
ЗАКАЧКА
Замовити оригінальну роботу

РЕФЕРАТ

 

на тему:

 

Cloning

 

Cloning is the process of creating an identical copy of something. In

HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biology" \o "Biology" Biology ,

it collectively refers to processes used to create copies of HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA" \o "DNA" DNA fragments (Molecular

Cloning), HYPERLINK "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cell_%28biology%29"

\o "Cell (biology)" cells (Cell Cloning), or HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organisms" \o "Organisms" organisms . The

term also encompases situations, whereby organisms reproduce HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asexual_reproduction" \o "Asexual

reproduction" asexually , but in common parlance refers to

intentionally created copies of organisms.

 

Etymology

 

The term clone is derived from ????, the HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greek_language" \o "Greek language" Greek

word for "twig", referring to the process, whereby a new plant can be

created from a twig. In HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horticulture" \o "Horticulture"

horticulture , the spelling clon was used until the twentieth century;

the final e came into use to indicate the vowel is a "long o" instead of

a "short o". Since the term entered the popular lexicon in a more

general context, the spelling clone has been used exclusively.

 

Molecular cloning

 

Molecular cloning refers to the procedure of isolating a defined DNA

sequence and obtaining multiple copies of it HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/In_vivo" \o "In vivo" in vivo . Cloning

is frequently employed to amplify DNA fragments containing HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genes" \o "Genes" genes , but it can be

used to amplify any DNA sequence such as HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Promoters" \o "Promoters" promoters ,

non-coding sequences and randomly fragmented DNA. It is utilised in a

wide array of biological experiments and practical applications such as

large scale protein production. Occasionally, the term cloning is

misleadingly used to refer to the identification of the HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chromosome" \o "Chromosome" chromosomal

location of a gene associated with a particular phenotype of interest,

such as in positional cloning. In practice, localization of the gene to

a chromosome or genomic region does not necessarily enable one to

isolate or amplify the relevant genomic sequence.

 

In essence, in order to amplify any DNA sequence in a living organism

that sequence must be linked to an HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_replication" \o "Origin of

replication" origin of replication , a sequence element capable of

directing the propagation of its self and any linked sequence. In

practice, however, a number of other features are desired and a variety

of specialised cloning HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vectors" \o "Vectors" vectors exist that

allow protein expression, tagging, single stranded HYPERLINK

"http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RNA" \o "RNA" RNA and DNA production and

-----> Page:

0 [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

ЗАМОВИТИ ОРИГІНАЛЬНУ РОБОТУ