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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe main variants of the english language (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The main variants of the english language



General Characteristics of the English Language in Different Parts of

the English-Speaking World


It is natural that the English language is not used with uniformity in

the British Isles and in Australia, in the USA and -in New Zealand, in

Canada and in India, etc. The English language also as some

peculiarities in Wales, Scotland, in other parts of the British Isles

and America. Is the nature of these varieties the same?


Modern linguistics distinguishes territorial variants of a national

language and local dialects. Variants of a language are regional

varieties of a standard literary language characterized by some minor

peculiarities in the sound system, vocabulary and by their own literary

norms. Dialects are varieties 01 a language used as a means of oral

communication in small localities, they are set off (more or less

sharply) from other varieties by some dlsitncttve teatufes of

pronunciation, grammar and vocabulary.


Close inspection of the varieties mentioned above reveals that they are

essentially different in character. It is not difficult to establish

that the varieties spoken in small areas are local dialects. The status

of the other varieties is more difficult to establish.


It is over half a century already that the nature of the two main

variants of the English language, British and American (Br and AE) has

been discussed. Some American linguists, H. L. Mencken for one, speak of

two separate languages with a steady flood of linguistic influence first

(up to about 1914) from Britain to America, and since then from America

to the British Isles. They even proclaim that the American influence on

British English is so powerful that there will come a time when the

American standard will be established in Britain.1 Other linguists

regard the language of the USA as a dialect of English.


Still more questionable is the position of Australian English (AuE) and

Canadian English (CnE).


The differences between the English language as spoken in Britain, the

USA, Australia and Canada are immediately noticeable уд the field of

phonetics. However these distinctions are confined to the

articulatory-acoustics characteristics of some phonemes, to some

differences in the use of others and to the differences in the rhythm

and intonation of speech. The few phonemes characteristic of American

pronunciation and alien to British literary norms can as a rule be

observed in British dialects.


The variations in vocabulary, to be considered below, are not very

numerous. Most of them are divergences in the semantic structure of

words and in their usage.


The dissimilarities in grammar like AE gotten, proven for BE got, proved

are scarce. For the most part these dissimilarities consist in the

preference of this or that grammatical category or form to some others.

For example, the preference of Past Indefinite to Present Perfect, the

formation of the Future Tense with will as the only auxiliary verb for

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