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НазваGender studies, E-learning English, аdvantages and disadvantages (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
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Gender studies, E-learning English, аdvantages and disadvantages

Gender studies

Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or
humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and
society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic
oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. Work in gender
studies influences and is influenced by the related fields of Ethnic
Studies, African American Studies, Asian American Studies, Latino/a
Studies, and Native American Studies.

Work in gender studies is often associated with work in feminist theory,
queer studies, and other theoretical aspects of cultural studies. While
work in gender studies is principally found in humanities departments
and publications (in areas such as English literature and other literary
studies), it is also found in social-scientific areas such as women's
studies, anthropology, sociology, and psychology.

Gender in Psychology

The aggregate body of literature in the field of psychology says little
about gender in certain and absolute terms. An enormous number of pages
exist exploring the practical differences between men and women at
present, but few if any provide uncontradicted information on the exact
cause of those differences. There is an ongoing debate concerning Nature
versus nurture that shows no sign of being resolved in the near future;
while the issue of whether certain characteristics are determined by
genetic factors or by exposure to environmental factors is important in
general, it is particularly important in light of modern feminist

Sex/gender distinction

The sex/gender distinction is a concept in feminist theory, political
feminism, and sociology which distinguishes sex, a natural or biological
feature, from gender, the cultural or learned significance of sex. Taken
to its limit, the distinction maintains that gender is totally
undetermined by sex.

The distinction is strategically important for some strands of feminist
theory and politics, particularly second-wave feminism, because on it is
premised the argument that gender is not biological destiny, and that
the patriarchal oppression of women is a cultural phenomenon which need
not necessarily follow from biological sexual difference. The
distinction allows feminists to accept some form of natural sexual
difference while criticizing gender inequality. Some third-wave
feminists like Judith Butler and French feminists like Monique Wittig
and social constructionists within sociology have disputed the
biological-natural status the distinction imputes to sex, arguing
instead that both sex and gender are culturally constructed and
structurally complicit.

In official documents (eg. IQ tests, government documents) more and more
the word 'sex' is being replaced by the word 'gender'. To add to the
problems there is usually not enough space to write 'masculine' or
'feminine' which are examples of the correct term, so one is forced to
write 'male?' or 'female' which is incorrect. This is a worldwide trend
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