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НазваGender studies, E-learning English, аdvantages and disadvantages (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
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Gender studies, E-learning English, аdvantages and disadvantages


Gender studies


Gender studies is a theoretical work in the social sciences or

humanities that focuses on issues of sex and gender in language and

society, and often addresses related issues including racial and ethnic

oppression, postcolonial societies, and globalization. Work in gender

studies influences and is influenced by the related fields of Ethnic

Studies, African American Studies, Asian American Studies, Latino/a

Studies, and Native American Studies.


Work in gender studies is often associated with work in feminist theory,

queer studies, and other theoretical aspects of cultural studies. While

work in gender studies is principally found in humanities departments

and publications (in areas such as English literature and other literary

studies), it is also found in social-scientific areas such as women's

studies, anthropology, sociology, and psychology.


Gender in Psychology


The aggregate body of literature in the field of psychology says little

about gender in certain and absolute terms. An enormous number of pages

exist exploring the practical differences between men and women at

present, but few if any provide uncontradicted information on the exact

cause of those differences. There is an ongoing debate concerning Nature

versus nurture that shows no sign of being resolved in the near future;

while the issue of whether certain characteristics are determined by

genetic factors or by exposure to environmental factors is important in

general, it is particularly important in light of modern feminist



Sex/gender distinction


The sex/gender distinction is a concept in feminist theory, political

feminism, and sociology which distinguishes sex, a natural or biological

feature, from gender, the cultural or learned significance of sex. Taken

to its limit, the distinction maintains that gender is totally

undetermined by sex.


The distinction is strategically important for some strands of feminist

theory and politics, particularly second-wave feminism, because on it is

premised the argument that gender is not biological destiny, and that

the patriarchal oppression of women is a cultural phenomenon which need

not necessarily follow from biological sexual difference. The

distinction allows feminists to accept some form of natural sexual

difference while criticizing gender inequality. Some third-wave

feminists like Judith Butler and French feminists like Monique Wittig

and social constructionists within sociology have disputed the

biological-natural status the distinction imputes to sex, arguing

instead that both sex and gender are culturally constructed and

structurally complicit.


In official documents (eg. IQ tests, government documents) more and more

the word 'sex' is being replaced by the word 'gender'. To add to the

problems there is usually not enough space to write 'masculine' or

'feminine' which are examples of the correct term, so one is forced to

write 'male?' or 'female' which is incorrect. This is a worldwide trend

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