найбільша колекція україномовних рефератів

Всього в базі: 75883
останнє поновлення: 2016-12-30
за 7 днів додано 0

Реферати на українській
Реферати на російській
Українські підручники

$ Робота на замовлення
Реклама на сайті
Зворотній зв'язок



реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваPolitical correctness in Speech (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
Замовити оригінальну роботу

Political correctness in Speech


Political correctness (also politically correct or PC) is a term used

to describe language, or behavior, which is claimed to be calculated to

provide a minimum of offense, particularly to the racial, cultural, or

other identity groups being described. The concept is not exclusive to

the English language. A text that conforms to the ideals of political

correctness is said to be politically correct.


The existence of PC has been alleged and denounced by conservative,

(Lind, Buchanan, Sobran), liberal (Hentoff 1992, Schlesinger 1998), and

other (Brandt 1992) authors. The term itself and its usage is hotly

contested. Some left-wing authors (Messer-Davidow 1993, Schultz 1993,

Glassner 1999) have argued that "political correctness" is a straw man,

meant to discredit what they consider progressive social change,

especially around issues of race and gender.


The term PC is sometimes used in a pejorative or ironic sense to

satirise either the idea that carefully chosen language can encourage,

promote, or establish certain social outcomes and relationships, or the

belief that the resulting changes benefit society. This satire often

comments on certain forms of identity politics, including gay rights,

feminism, multiculturalism and the disability rights movement. For

example, the use of "gender-neutral" job titles ("lineworker" instead of

"lineman," "chairperson" or "chair" instead of "chairman," etc.), the

use of the expression "differently abled" rather than "disabled", or the

use of "Native American" rather than "Indian", are all sometimes

referred to as "politically correct". 'PC terms are also applied to

objects, such as "maintenance cover" instead of "manhole cover".


Since the 1990s the concept has often been a target of certain kinds of

comedians and satirists, partly because they equate political

correctness with euphemism.


Political correctness as a linguistic concept


The modern concept of political correctness arose in the 1970s-80s; at

this time, it was becoming socially acceptable in the West for women and

non-Caucasians to pursue lifestyles that had previously been held

(nearly) exclusively by Caucasian men, such as a senior management

position within a large corporation. It was therefore argued that the

English language must change its male-centred nouns such as "chairman"

to more inclusive terms such as "chairperson".


Other common examples include the use of person with a disability or

preferably "differently abled" in preference to "handicapped or

crippled; mentally ill in preference to crazy.


The goal of changing language and terminology consists of several

points, including:


1. Certain people have their rights, opportunities, or freedoms

restricted due to their categorization as members of a group with a

derogatory stereotype.


2. This categorization is largely implicit and unconscious, and is

facilitated by the easy availability of labeling terminology.


3. By making the labeling terminology problematic, people are made to

-----> Page:

0 [1]