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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваSeven Wonders of the World (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Seven Wonders of the World

The Seven Wonders of the World (or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient
World) is a widely-known list of seven remarkable constructions of  
"Classical antiquity"  classical antiquity . It was based on guide-books
popular among   HYPERLINK ""
\o "Ancient Greece"  Hellenic  sight-seers and only includes works
located around the   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Mediterranean" 
Mediterranean  rim. Later lists include those for the Medieval World and
the Modern World.

The historian   HYPERLINK "" \o
"Herodotus"  Herodotus  and the scholar   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Callimachus"  Callimachus
 of   HYPERLINK "" \o "Cyrene" 
Cyrene  (ca   HYPERLINK "" \o "305
BC"  305 –240 BC) at the Museum of Alexandria, made early lists of
"seven wonders" but their writings have not survived, except as

A later list, under various titles like De septem orbis spactaculis and
traditionally misattributed to the engineer   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Philo of
Byzantium"  Philo of Byzantium , may date as late as the fifth century
AD, though the author writes as if the Colossus of Rhodes were still

These are given in the table below:

·	Great Pyramid of Giza

·	Hanging Gardens of Babylon

·	Temple of Artemis at Ephesus

·	Statue of Zeus at Olympia

·	Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus

·	Colossus of Rhodes

·	Lighthouse of Alexandria

The Greek category was not "Wonders" but "theamata", which translates
closer to "must-sees". The list that we know today was compiled in the  
HYPERLINK "" \o "Middle Ages" 
Middle Ages —by which time many of the sites were no longer in
existence. Since the list came mostly from ancient Greek writings, only
sites that would have been known and visited by the ancient Greeks were
included. Even as early as 1600 BC, tourist   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Graffiti"  graffiti  was
scrawled on monuments in the Egyptian   HYPERLINK
"" \o "Valley of the
Kings"  Valley of the Kings .

Antipater's original list replaced the Lighthouse of Alexandria with the
  HYPERLINK "" \o "Ishtar Gate" 
Ishtar Gate . It wasn't until the 6th century AD that the list above was
used. Of these wonders, the only one that has survived to the present
day is the Great Pyramid of Giza. The existence of the Hanging Gardens
has not been definitively proven. Records show that the other five
wonders were destroyed by natural disasters. The Temple of Artemis and
the Statue of Zeus were destroyed by fire, while the Lighthouse of
Alexandria, Colossus, and Mausoleum of Maussollos were destroyed by
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