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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваSeven Wonders of the World (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Seven Wonders of the World


The Seven Wonders of the World (or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient

World) is a widely-known list of seven remarkable constructions of


"Classical antiquity" classical antiquity . It was based on guide-books

popular among HYPERLINK ""

\o "Ancient Greece" Hellenic sight-seers and only includes works

located around the HYPERLINK

"" \o "Mediterranean"

Mediterranean rim. Later lists include those for the Medieval World and

the Modern World.


The historian HYPERLINK "" \o

"Herodotus" Herodotus and the scholar HYPERLINK

"" \o "Callimachus" Callimachus

of HYPERLINK "" \o "Cyrene"

Cyrene (ca HYPERLINK "" \o "305

BC" 305 –240 BC) at the Museum of Alexandria, made early lists of

"seven wonders" but their writings have not survived, except as



A later list, under various titles like De septem orbis spactaculis and

traditionally misattributed to the engineer HYPERLINK

"" \o "Philo of

Byzantium" Philo of Byzantium , may date as late as the fifth century

AD, though the author writes as if the Colossus of Rhodes were still



These are given in the table below:


· Great Pyramid of Giza


· Hanging Gardens of Babylon


· Temple of Artemis at Ephesus


· Statue of Zeus at Olympia


· Mausoleum of Maussollos at Halicarnassus


· Colossus of Rhodes


· Lighthouse of Alexandria


The Greek category was not "Wonders" but "theamata", which translates

closer to "must-sees". The list that we know today was compiled in the

HYPERLINK "" \o "Middle Ages"

Middle Ages —by which time many of the sites were no longer in

existence. Since the list came mostly from ancient Greek writings, only

sites that would have been known and visited by the ancient Greeks were

included. Even as early as 1600 BC, tourist HYPERLINK

"" \o "Graffiti" graffiti was

scrawled on monuments in the Egyptian HYPERLINK

"" \o "Valley of the

Kings" Valley of the Kings .


Antipater's original list replaced the Lighthouse of Alexandria with the

HYPERLINK "" \o "Ishtar Gate"

Ishtar Gate . It wasn't until the 6th century AD that the list above was

used. Of these wonders, the only one that has survived to the present

day is the Great Pyramid of Giza. The existence of the Hanging Gardens

has not been definitively proven. Records show that the other five

wonders were destroyed by natural disasters. The Temple of Artemis and

the Statue of Zeus were destroyed by fire, while the Lighthouse of

Alexandria, Colossus, and Mausoleum of Maussollos were destroyed by

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