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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
Назва“Old Faithful” – an American Wonder (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
Замовити оригінальну роботу

“Old Faithful” – an American Wonder


Old Faithful is a cone geyser located in Yellowstone National Park,

Wyoming, United States. Old Faithful was named in 1870 during the

Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition and was the first geyser in the park

to receive a name.


An eruption can shoot 3,700–8,400 gallons (14,000–32,000 l) of boiling

water to a height of 106–184 feet (30–55 m) lasting from 1.5–5 minutes.

The average height of an eruption is 145 feet (44 m).


The intervals range from 65–92 minutes with 91 minutes being the



More than 137,000 eruptions have been recorded. Harry M. Woodward first

described a mathematical relationship between the duration and intervals

of the eruptions (1938).[citation needed] Old Faithful is not the

tallest or largest geyser in the park. That title belongs to the less

predictable Steamboat Geyser.


Over the years, the length of the interval has increased, which may be

the result of earthquakes affecting subterranean water levels. These

disruptions have made the earlier mathematical relationship inaccurate,

but have in fact made Old Faithful more predictable. With an error of 10

minutes, Old Faithful will erupt 65 minutes after an eruption lasting

less than 2.5 minutes or 92 minutes after an eruption lasting more than

2.5 minutes. The reliability of Old Faithful can be attributed to the

fact that it is not connected to any other thermal features of the Upper

Geyser Basin.


Between 1983 and 1994, four probes containing temperature and pressure

measurement devices and video equipment were lowered into Old Faithful.

The probes were lowered as deep as 72 feet (22 m). Temperature

measurements of the water at this depth was 244°F (118°C), the same as

was measured in 1942. The video probes were lowered to a maximum depth

of 42 feet (13 m) to observe the conduit formation and the processes

that took place in the conduit. Some of the processes observed include

fog formation from the interaction of cool air from above mixing with

heated air from below, the recharge processes of water entering into the

conduit and expanding from below, and entry of superheated steam

measuring as high as 265°F (129°C) into the conduit.




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Old Faithful Geyser, short period eruption





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Old Faithful Geyser




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Old Faithful Geyser during an eruption