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: 2016-10-23
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The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine ()
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The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The
USA And Ukraine.




oward Aikens contributions to the development of the computer -notably
the Harvard MarkI (IBM ASSC) machine, and its successor the MarkII -
are often excluded from the mainstream history of computers on two
technicalities. The first is that MarkI and MarkII were
electro-mechanical rather than electronic; the second one is that Aiken
was never convinced that computer programs should be treated as data in
what has come to be known as the von Neumann concept, or the stored

It is not proposed to discuss here the origins and significance of the
stored program. Nor I wish to deal with the related problem of whether
the machines before the stored program were or were not computers.
This subject is complicated by the confusion in actual names given to
machines. For example, the ENIAC, which did not incorporate a stored
program, was officially named a computer: Electronic Numeral Integrator
And Computer. But the first stored-program machine to be put into
regular operation was Maurice Wiles EDSAC: Electronic Delay Storage
Automatic Calculator. It seems to be rather senseless to deny many truly
significant innovations (by H.H.Aiken and by Eckert and Mauchly), which
played an important role in the history of computers, on the arbitrary
ground that they did not incorporate the stored-program concept.
Additionally, in the case of Aiken, it is significant that there is a
current computer technology that does not incorporate the stored
programs and that is designated as (at least by TEXAS INSTRUMENTS() as
Harvard architecture, though, it should more properly be called Aiken
architecture. In this technology the program is fix and not subject to
any alteration save by intent - as in some computers used for telephone
switching and in ROM.

Aiken was a visionary, a man ahead of his times. Grace Hopper and others
remember his prediction in the late 1940s, even before the vacuum tube
had been wholly replaced by the transistor, that the time would come
when a machine even more powerful than the giant machines of those days
could be fitted into a space as small as a shoe box.

Some weeks before his death Aiken had made another prediction. He
pointed out that hardware considerations alone did not give a true
picture of computer costs. As hardware has become cheaper, software has
been apt to get more expensive. And then he gave us his final
prediction: The time will come, he said, when manufacturers will gave
away hardware in order to sell software. Time alone will tell whether
or not this was his final look ahead into the future.



n the early 1960s, when computers were hulking mainframes that took up
entire rooms, engineers were already toying with the then - extravagant
notion of building a computer intended for the sole use of one person.
by the early 1970s, researches at Xeroxs Polo Alto Research Center
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