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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваEarly New English Poetry (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:

Early New English Poetry


Early New English is traditionally distinguished in the history of the
language because it was in this period that the rest of the grammatical
categories came into use, the last systematic and cardinal change in the
sound system occurred, shifting the real sound form of the words from
the spelling to almost the present-day state (since that period only
slight, minor spelling changes were introduced in Britain, probably in
the American variant the changes were a little bit more sizeable). Early
New English was the period when borrowing of foreign words came not due
to invasion, but because the English language was already free from its
xenophobic qualities, and even the most strict scholars did not reject
them; on the contrary, scholarly language abounded in borrowings too.

The reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) was marked by extensive trade
contacts and the struggle with England's European rivals - France, Spain
and Portugal (in 1588 the Spanish Fleet, the invincible Armada was
routed). Colonial expansion began.

The heightened activity of the age, uneven though it was, produced a
most extraordinary outpouring of great art. The idealism of the age is
represented in the living examples of such men as Sir Walter Raleigh and
Sir Philip Sidney, who, like Hamlet, embodied the "courtier's,
soldier's, scholar's, eye, tongue, sword." Admired by all who knew him,
Sidney wrote his spirited Defence of Poesie (1579-81; publ. 1595) as
well as a long, complex prose pastoral, the Arcadia (1590). His
contemporary Edmund Spenser, after composing The Shepheards Calendar
(1579), a book of pastoral eclogues dedicated to Sidney, embarked on an
epic romance, The Faerie Queene (1590-96). This great allegorical poem
was intended to demonstrate the virtues of a Christian prince, Arthur,
serving England and its sovereign, Elizabeth. The epic owed much to
Ariosto's Orlando Furioso (1516), and many English writers drew heavily
on continental literatures; they also infused their work with native
traditions and originality, however, and were unencumbered by principles
of classicism, so that their writings were far from merely imitative.
Thus while William Shakespeare borrowed freely from Boccaccio and
Montaigne, his plays and poems are not copies but transformations into
something "rich and strange." The language itself experienced an immense
expansion and increased flexibility. New words and new uses of existing
ones together with borrowings from other languages combined to make
English rich and versatile. Only the most pedantic of writers suffered
constraints. In drama, multiple plots and frank violations of the
unities of time and place were the rule, although such "classical"
playwrights as Ben Jonson composed excellent comedies like Every Man in
His Humour (1598) and Volpone (1606) within the unities. Translations
became popular and influential. Sir Thomas Hoby's translation (1561) of
Castiglione's The Courtier and Sir Thomas North's translation (1579) of
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