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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваEarly New English Poetry (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:


Early New English Poetry



Early New English is traditionally distinguished in the history of the

language because it was in this period that the rest of the grammatical

categories came into use, the last systematic and cardinal change in the

sound system occurred, shifting the real sound form of the words from

the spelling to almost the present-day state (since that period only

slight, minor spelling changes were introduced in Britain, probably in

the American variant the changes were a little bit more sizeable). Early

New English was the period when borrowing of foreign words came not due

to invasion, but because the English language was already free from its

xenophobic qualities, and even the most strict scholars did not reject

them; on the contrary, scholarly language abounded in borrowings too.


The reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) was marked by extensive trade

contacts and the struggle with England's European rivals - France, Spain

and Portugal (in 1588 the Spanish Fleet, the invincible Armada was

routed). Colonial expansion began.


The heightened activity of the age, uneven though it was, produced a

most extraordinary outpouring of great art. The idealism of the age is

represented in the living examples of such men as Sir Walter Raleigh and

Sir Philip Sidney, who, like Hamlet, embodied the "courtier's,

soldier's, scholar's, eye, tongue, sword." Admired by all who knew him,

Sidney wrote his spirited Defence of Poesie (1579-81; publ. 1595) as

well as a long, complex prose pastoral, the Arcadia (1590). His

contemporary Edmund Spenser, after composing The Shepheards Calendar

(1579), a book of pastoral eclogues dedicated to Sidney, embarked on an

epic romance, The Faerie Queene (1590-96). This great allegorical poem

was intended to demonstrate the virtues of a Christian prince, Arthur,

serving England and its sovereign, Elizabeth. The epic owed much to

Ariosto's Orlando Furioso (1516), and many English writers drew heavily

on continental literatures; they also infused their work with native

traditions and originality, however, and were unencumbered by principles

of classicism, so that their writings were far from merely imitative.

Thus while William Shakespeare borrowed freely from Boccaccio and

Montaigne, his plays and poems are not copies but transformations into

something "rich and strange." The language itself experienced an immense

expansion and increased flexibility. New words and new uses of existing

ones together with borrowings from other languages combined to make

English rich and versatile. Only the most pedantic of writers suffered

constraints. In drama, multiple plots and frank violations of the

unities of time and place were the rule, although such "classical"

playwrights as Ben Jonson composed excellent comedies like Every Man in

His Humour (1598) and Volpone (1606) within the unities. Translations

became popular and influential. Sir Thomas Hoby's translation (1561) of

Castiglione's The Courtier and Sir Thomas North's translation (1579) of

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