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НазваChildbirth (Пологи)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Childbirth (Пологи)


Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the

culmination of a HYPERLINK "" \o

"Human" human HYPERLINK "" \o

"Pregnancy" pregnancy or HYPERLINK

"" \o "Gestation" gestation

period with the delivery of one or more newborn HYPERLINK

"" \o "Infant" infants from a

HYPERLINK "" \o "Woman" woman 's

HYPERLINK "" \o "Uterus" uterus .

The process of human childbirth is categorized in 3 stages of labour.

The first stage accomplishes the shortening and then the dilation of the

cervix. It is deemed to have started when the cervix is 3 cm dilated,

and ends with full dilation. Contractions begin in the first stage of

labour although they may be irregular and sporadic at first. The second

stage, often called the pushing stage, starts when the cervix is fully

dilated and ends with the expulsion of the fetus. In the third stage,

the HYPERLINK "" \o "Placenta"

placenta detaches from the uterine wall and is expelled through the

birth canal. HYPERLINK "" \l "cite_note-0"

\o "" [1] Preceding the onset of labour is a period called the latent

phase. This phase may last many days, and the contractions are an

intensification of the HYPERLINK

"" \o "Braxton

Hicks contractions" Braxton Hicks contractions that start around 26

weeks gestation. Latent phase ends with the onset of active first stage



The mechanics of birth


Because humans are bipedal with an erect stance and humans have

relatively the biggest head and shoulders to the size of the pelvis of

any species, humans fetuses are adapted to make birth possible.


The erect posture causes the weight of the abdominal contents to thrust

on the pelvic floor, a complex structure which must not only support

this weight but allow three channels to pass through it: the urethra,

the vagina and the rectum. The relatively large head and shoulders

require a specific sequence of manoeuvres to occur for the bony head and

shoulders to pass through the bony ring of the pelvis. If these

manoeuvres fail, the progress of labour is arrested. All changes in the

soft tissues of the cervix and the birth canal are entirely dependent on

the successful completion of these six maneuvers:


Engagement of the fetal head in the transverse position. The baby is

looking across the pelvis at one or other of the mother's hips.


Descent and HYPERLINK "" \o

"Flexion" flexion of the fetal head


Internal rotation. The fetal head rotates 90 degrees to the HYPERLINK


&redlink=1" \o "Occipito-anterior (page does not exist)"

occipito-anterior so that the baby's face is towards the mother's

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