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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваJohn Linton Gardner (born March 2, 1917)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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John Linton Gardner (born March 2, 1917)


Gardner was born in Manchester, England and brought up in Ilfracombe,

North Devon. His father Alfred Linton Gardner was a local GP and amateur

composer who was killed in action in the last months of the First World

War. His mother, Emily Muriel Pullein-Thompson, was the sister of

Captain Harold J "Cappy" Pullein-Thompson, who was the father of the

Pullein-Thompson sisters and their brother, the playwright Dennis



Gardner was educated at Eagle House, Wellington College and Exeter

College, Oxford. An important figure in his early life was Hubert Foss

of Oxford University Press, who published the Intermezzo for Organ in

1936 and introduced him to the composer Arthur Benjamin to whom Gardner

dedicated his Rhapsody for Oboe and String Quartet (1935).This work had

its first performance at the Wigmore Hall in February 1936. The String

Quartet No.1(1938) was broadcast from Paris by the Blech Quartet in

1939, and the anthem The Holy Son of God most High (1938) was also

published by OUP. At Oxford Gardner was friendly with Theodor Adorno

with whom he played piano duets.


Then came the War. Gardner completed two terms as music master at Repton

School, where one of his pupils was the composer John Veale, then a

sixth former. In 1940 he enlisted and working first as a Bandmaster and

then as a Navigator with Transport Command. It was during the War that

ideas for the Symphony No.1 began to form.


"My first symphony assembled itself in my mind in stages during the last

year or two of the War. The opening even goes back further to a short

piano piece I wrote in 1939 or 1940. At that time I'd no idea that it

could be the beginning of a symphony, though I was aware that it hardly

constituted a complete piano piece.


Other elements in the score started variously as a mid-war setting of

passages from Blake's Book of Thel, a theme I conceived for a set of

variations and, in the case of the main theme of the finale, a

transformation of the opening of the finale. of my first string quartet

which had in fact gained two or three performances in Paris and England

by the Blech Quartet in 1939 but with which I was deeply unsatisfied and

which I eventually withdrew.


I do not believe it is exceptional for a big work to derive from several

sources - there are many examples of such a process in the origin of

many of Brahms' best known pieces : the first piano concerto, for

example, the German Requiem and the Violin Concerto. In my case it was,

of course, due to the fact that I was serving in the R.A.F. around the

World and could only conceive music in the scrappiest manner on odd

pieces of paper in the most unsympathetic ambiances. Demobilisation,

therefore, came as a blessed chance to write at length, which is what I

did during the bitter Winter of 1946-7 on those evenings when I did not

have to be in attendance at the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, were I

earned my living as a repetiteur. In June 1947 I reached the end of the

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