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реферати, курсові, дипломні:

Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваThe ukrainian language
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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The ukrainian language



I'm lucky to be a Ukrainian,


To be born on the marvelous land,


To enjoy in the third millennium


All the beauty of cultural brand.


I'm lucky to speak Ukrainian


With its values that shine like the sun.


If I could, I would give all the premium


For the charm of my beautiful tongue.


People's self-expression, their spiritual development are closely

connected with their mother tongue. The Ukrainian language's melody

resembles fields' and forests' whispering, birds` songs, water streams`

rippling, folk songs' and fairy tales' music. The mother language

cultivates children's love to the native land and their home.


Language formation is a historical creative process. Local dialects and

the people's language do not appear at once, but are formed throughout



The Ukrainian language developed from the Old Slavonic language and

during the XlVth-XVIIIth centuries it was developing successfully,

improving its grammatical structure and enriching its vocabulary. But

its further development was somewhat hampered by the discriminating

policy of the Polish and Russian Empire in the XVIIIth century.


The Ukrainian language is the second most widely spoken language of 12

surviving members of the Slavic group of the large Indo-European

language family. Geographically, it is classified together with Russian

and Belarusian as one East Slavic language.


Ukrainian is represented basically by a set of dialects, some of which

differ significantly from the others. Generally, however, dialectical

divisions in Ukrainian are not as strong as they are, for example, in

British English or German. Traditionally, scholars have divided

Ukrainian dialects into three main groups: northern, southwestern and

southeastern. Standard Ukrainian is a superstructure built on this

dialectal foundation. It is the only form of Ukrainian taught at school

and used in literature. The standard language is based mainly on the

Poltava-Kyiv dialects of the southeastern group.


The status of the Ukrainian language on Ukrainian territories was

defined, except during Ukraine's brief period of independence, by

foreign powers. As a rule, the role of the Ukrainian language was

restricted. In the former USSR, for example, there was no special

legislation on language; Russian was the only language of government.

Ukraine's Constitution of 1937 guaranteed the use of Ukrainian in

schools. In fact, Russian continued to be the only language of

instruction for the Ukrainian population.


On 28 October, 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the UkSSR passed the law "On

languages in the Ukrainian SSR",which gives official status to Ukrainian

and provides its introduction in the legislation, ministry, civil

organisations and enterprises, the court system, international treaties

and agreements, the school system from kindergarten to higher

educational institutions, scientific publications and the mass media.




What family of languages does Ukrainian belong to?


2. What dialects is Ukrainian divided into?

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