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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваTennessee Williams(March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Tennessee Williams(March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983)


Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better

known as Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright who

received many of the top theatrical awards. He moved to New Orleans in

1939 and changed his name to "Tennessee," the state of his father's

birth. He won the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for A Streetcar Named Desire

in 1948 and for Cat on a Hot Tin Roof in 1955. In addition, The Glass

Menagerie (1945) and The Night of the Iguana (1961) received New York

Drama Critics' Circle Awards. His 1952 play The Rose Tattoo received the

Tony Award for best play.


He was born in Columbus, Mississippi, in the home of his maternal

grandfather, the local Episcopal rector. The home is now the Mississippi

Welcome Center and tourist office for the city. Williams' middle name,

Lanier, indicates his family's Virginia connections to the artistic

family from England, and earlier from Italy.


By the time Thomas was three, the family had moved to Clarksdale,

Mississippi. At five, he was diagnosed with a paralytic disease. It

caused his legs to be paralyzed for nearly two years but his mother

encouraged him to make up stories and read. She gave him a typewriter

when he was 13.


His father Cornelius Williams was a traveling salesman who became

increasingly abusive as his children grew older. The father often

favored Tennessee's brother Dakin, perhaps because of Tennessee's

illness and extended weakness and convalescence as a child. Tennessee's

mother Edwina Dakin Williams had aspirations as a genteel southern lady

and was somewhat smothering. She may have had a mood disorder.


In 1918, when Williams was seven, the family moved again, this time to

St. Louis, Missouri. In 1927, at 16, Williams won third prize (five

dollars) for an essay published in Smart Set entitled, "Can a Good Wife

Be a Good Sport?" A year later, he published "The Vengeance of Nitocris"

in Weird Tales.


In the early 1930s Williams attended the University of

Missouri–Columbia, where he joined Alpha Tau Omega fraternity. His

fraternity brothers dubbed him "Tennessee" for his rich southern drawl.

In the late 1930s, Williams transferred to Washington University in St.

Louis, Missouri for a year, and finally earned a degree from the

University of Iowa in 1938. By then, Williams had written Cairo,

Shanghai, Bombay!. This work was first performed in 1935 at 1780

Glenview in Memphis.


Tennessee Williams found inspiration in his problematic family for much

of his writing.


Williams lived for a time in the French Quarter of New Orleans,

Louisiana. He moved there in 1939 to write for the WPA. He first lived

at 722 Toulouse Street, the setting of his 1977 play Vieux Carrй. The

building is part of The Historic New Orleans Collection. He began

writing A Streetcar Named Desire (1947) while living at 632 St. Peter

Street. He finished it later in Key West, Florida, where he moved in the

1940s. He lived in a separate building at the home of a family named

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