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НазваHetman Mazepa in contemporary western european sources 1687—1709 (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Реферат на тему:

Hetman Mazepa in contemporary western european sources 1687—1709

At the mention of the name Mazepa, most English-speaking people think
of Byron’s mythical hero bound on a horse galloping through the
wilderness, rather than about an historical person. The historical
Mazepa is quite different from the one depicted in literature.

Mazepa was Hetman or Chief Executive of the autonomous Ukrainian
Military Republic, known also as the Hetmanstate (1649—1764), first
under a Polish protectorate, and from 1654 under a Russian one. At that
time protectorate Status was a very conmon condition even for such
countnes as Holland under Spain, Prussia under Poland, Livonia and
Estonia under Sweden, and the Balkan countries under Turkey. Although
the Ukrainian Military Republic or the Hetmanstate was a protectorate,
nevertheless, as the German historian Hans Schumann observed, the
Hetmanstate had its own territory, people, specific democratic System of
government, and military forces, namely the Cossacks. The Hetmanstate
lasted until 1764, when Catherine II forced the last Hetman, Cyril
Rosumovsky (1750—1764), to abdicate. There was a clear distinction
between the Ukraine and Russia at that time as can be seen on the
contemporary maps by G. de Beauplan, P. Gordon, J.B. Homann, and others.

It is true that Mazepa’s prerogatives were limited by the so-called
"Kolomak Terms," but he still exercised the full power of his civil and
military authority and was regarded as the Chief-Executive by the
contemporary foreign diplomats in Moscow. For example, Jean de Baluze
(1648—1718), the French envoy in Moscow, visited Mazepa in 1704 at his
residence in Baturyn, and made the following remark about him: "... from
Muscovy I went to the Ukraine, the country of the Cossacks, where for a
few days I was the guest of Prince Mazepa, who is the supreme authority
in this country." Another French diplomat, Foy de la Neuville, who met
Mazepa, remarked that "... this Prince is not comely in his person, but
a very knowing Man, and speaks Latin in perfection. He is Cossack born."
And the English envoy in Moscow, Charles Lord Whitworth (1675—1725),
remarked in his report of November 21, 1708 that Mazepa in the Ukraine
"governed so long with little less authority than a soveraign Prince."

Mazepa’s contemporary, the brilliant English Journalist, Daniel Defoe
(1661—1731), wrote in his book about Tsar Peter I that "... Mazepa was
not a King in Title, he was Equal to a King in Power, and every way
Equal if not Superior to King Augustus in the divided Circumstances in
which his Power stood, even at the best of it." Indeed, Mazepa was aware
of his position and "considered himself a little less than the Polish
King." In fact, the Russian government communicated with the Hetmanstate
through the Russian Foreign Office ("Posolskij Prikas").

The main goal of Mazepa’s policy was to consolidate all of the Ukraine
and to strengthen the office of the hetman. The hetman having had rich
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