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Українські рефератиРусские рефератыКниги
НазваHetman Mazepa in contemporary western european sources 1687—1709 (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Hetman Mazepa in contemporary western european sources 1687—1709


At the mention of the name Mazepa, most English-speaking people think

of Byron’s mythical hero bound on a horse galloping through the

wilderness, rather than about an historical person. The historical

Mazepa is quite different from the one depicted in literature.


Mazepa was Hetman or Chief Executive of the autonomous Ukrainian

Military Republic, known also as the Hetmanstate (1649—1764), first

under a Polish protectorate, and from 1654 under a Russian one. At that

time protectorate Status was a very conmon condition even for such

countnes as Holland under Spain, Prussia under Poland, Livonia and

Estonia under Sweden, and the Balkan countries under Turkey. Although

the Ukrainian Military Republic or the Hetmanstate was a protectorate,

nevertheless, as the German historian Hans Schumann observed, the

Hetmanstate had its own territory, people, specific democratic System of

government, and military forces, namely the Cossacks. The Hetmanstate

lasted until 1764, when Catherine II forced the last Hetman, Cyril

Rosumovsky (1750—1764), to abdicate. There was a clear distinction

between the Ukraine and Russia at that time as can be seen on the

contemporary maps by G. de Beauplan, P. Gordon, J.B. Homann, and others.


It is true that Mazepa’s prerogatives were limited by the so-called

"Kolomak Terms," but he still exercised the full power of his civil and

military authority and was regarded as the Chief-Executive by the

contemporary foreign diplomats in Moscow. For example, Jean de Baluze

(1648—1718), the French envoy in Moscow, visited Mazepa in 1704 at his

residence in Baturyn, and made the following remark about him: "... from

Muscovy I went to the Ukraine, the country of the Cossacks, where for a

few days I was the guest of Prince Mazepa, who is the supreme authority

in this country." Another French diplomat, Foy de la Neuville, who met

Mazepa, remarked that "... this Prince is not comely in his person, but

a very knowing Man, and speaks Latin in perfection. He is Cossack born."

And the English envoy in Moscow, Charles Lord Whitworth (1675—1725),

remarked in his report of November 21, 1708 that Mazepa in the Ukraine

"governed so long with little less authority than a soveraign Prince."


Mazepa’s contemporary, the brilliant English Journalist, Daniel Defoe

(1661—1731), wrote in his book about Tsar Peter I that "... Mazepa was

not a King in Title, he was Equal to a King in Power, and every way

Equal if not Superior to King Augustus in the divided Circumstances in

which his Power stood, even at the best of it." Indeed, Mazepa was aware

of his position and "considered himself a little less than the Polish

King." In fact, the Russian government communicated with the Hetmanstate

through the Russian Foreign Office ("Posolskij Prikas").


The main goal of Mazepa’s policy was to consolidate all of the Ukraine

and to strengthen the office of the hetman. The hetman having had rich

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