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на тему:


Computer graphics














Subfields in computer graphics








Other subfields


Computer graphics is a sub-field of computer science which studies

methods for digitally synthesizing and manipulating visual content.

Although the term often refers to the study of three-dimensional

computer graphics, it also encompasses two-dimensional graphics and

image processing.



A modern render of the Utah teapot, an iconic model in 3D computer

graphics created by Martin Newell in 1975.




Computer graphics studies the manipulation of visual and geometric

information using computational techniques. It focuses on the

mathematical and computational foundations of image generation and

processing rather than purely aesthetic issues. Computer graphics is

often differentiated from the field of visualization, although the two

fields have many similarities.


Connected studies include:


Scientific visualization


Information visualization


Computer vision


Image processing


Computational Geometry


Computational Topology


Applied mathematics


Applications of computer graphics include:


Special effects


Visual effects


Video games


Digital art




One of the first displays of computer animation was Futureworld (1976),

which included an animation of a human face and hand — produced by Ed

Catmull and Fred Parke at the University of Utah.


There are several international conferences and journals where the most

significant results in computer graphics are published. Among them are

the SIGGRAPH and Eurographics conferences and the Association for

Computing Machinery (ACM) Transactions on Graphics journal. The joint

Eurographics and ACM SIGGRAPH symposium series features the major venues

for the more specialized sub-fields: Symposium on Geometry

Processing,Symposium on Rendering, and Symposium on Computer Animation.

As in the rest of computer science, conference publications in computer

graphics are generally more significant than journal publications (and

subsequently have lower acceptance rates)[1][2][3].[4]


Subfields in computer graphics


A broad classification of major subfields in computer graphics might be:


Geometry: studies ways to represent and process surfaces


Animation: studies with ways to represent and manipulate motion


Rendering: studies algorithms to reproduce light transport


Imaging: studies image acquisition or image editing




Successive approximations of a surface computed using quadric error



The subfield of geometry studies the representation of three-dimensional

objects in a discrete digital setting. Because the appearance of an

object depends largely on its exterior, boundary representations are

most commonly used. Two dimensional surfaces are a good representation

for most objects, though they may be non-manifold. Since surfaces are

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