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НазваEndocrine system (реферат)
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Endocrine system





1 Function


1.1 Types of signaling


1.1.1 Endocrine


1.1.2 Autocrine


1.1.3 Paracrine


1.1.4 Juxtacrine


2 Role in disease


3 Table of endocrine glands and secreted hormones


3.1 Hypothalamus


3.2 Pineal body (epiphysis)


3.3 Pituitary gland (hypophysis)


3.3.1 Anterior pituitary lobe (adenohypophysis)


3.3.2 Posterior pituitary lobe (neurohypophysis)


3.3.3 Intermediate pituitary lobe (pars intermedia)


3.4 Thyroid


3.5 Parathyroid


3.6 Heart


3.7 Striated muscle


3.8 Skin


3.9 Adipose tissue


3.10 Stomach


3.11 Duodenum


3.12 Liver


3.13 Pancreas


3.14 Kidney


3.15 Adrenal glands


3.15.1 Adrenal cortex


3.15.2 Adrenal medulla


3.15.3 Testes


3.16 Ovary


3.17 Placenta (when pregnant)


3.18 Uterus (when pregnant)


4 See also


5 References


6 External links





The endocrine system is a system of small organs that involve the

release of extracellular signaling molecules known as hormones. The

endocrine system is instrumental in regulating metabolism, growth,

development and puberty, and tissue function and also plays a part in

determining mood.[1] The field of study that deals with disorders of

endocrine glands is endocrinology, a branch of the wider field of

internal medicine.


Major endocrine glands. (Male on the left, female on the right.) 1.

Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal

gland 6. Pancreas 7. Ovary 8. Testes




The endocrine system is an information signal system much like the

nervous system. However, the nervous system uses nerves to conduct

information, whereas the endocrine system mainly uses blood vessels as

information channels. Glands located in many regions of the body release

into the bloodstream specific chemical messengers called hormones.

Hormones regulate the many and varied functions of an organism, e.g.,

mood, growth and development, tissue function, and metabolism, as well

as sending messages and acting on them.


Types of signaling


The typical mode of cell signaling in the endocrine system is endocrine

signaling. However, there are also other modes, i.e., paracrine,

autocrine, and neuroendocrine signaling.[2] Purely neurocrine signaling

between neurons, on the other hand, belongs completely to the nervous





A number of glands that signal each other in sequence is usually

referred to as an axis, for example, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal

axis. Typical endocrine glands are the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal

glands. Features of endocrine glands are, in general, their ductless

nature, their vascularity, and usually the presence of intracellular

vacuoles or granules storing their hormones. In contrast, exocrine

glands, such as salivary glands, sweat glands, and glands within the

gastrointestinal tract, tend to be much less vascular and have ducts or

a hollow lumen.




Other signaling can target the same cell.




Paracrine signaling is where the target cell is nearby.



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