England, Canada, Americа (еnglish speaking countries)
History of England.
The Anglo-Saxons, Celts, Vikings and Dark Ages.
The Norman Invasion.
Civil War and Oliver Cromwell. The Industrial Revolution.
The British Empire.
World War I and the “inter-war” years.
World War II and the ‘post-war’ years.
The Klondike Gold Rush.
Immigration and the creation of the USA.
America and WW2.
The making of the USA.
4.Ukraine and English speaking countries.
1. History of England.
The Romans, led by Julius Caesar, landed, in 55 and 54 BC, in the part
of the island of Great Britain which was later to become South East
England. Nevertheless, they did not come as conquerors at that time. It
was only a century later, in 43 AD, under the emperor Claudius, that the
Romans occupied England. In order to protect themselves from the Picts,
the inhabitants of Scotland at that time, the Romans under the emperor
Hadrian had a wall built from east to west, Hadrian’s Wall, to defend
their southern British provinces and marc the boundary between England
and Scotland, as they were to become later.
The Romans constructed a highly effective internal infrastructure to
underpin their military occupation, building long, straight roads the
length and breadth of the country, most of which centered on Londium
(the Roman name for London). Many viaducts and aqueducts still remain
across England, along with the Roman city walls of Chester York and
The indigenous, mostly Celtic population was suppressed with efficiency,
although numerous, and often extremely bloody, uprisings occurred all
through their occupation. The most notable uprisings were that of the
Iceni (and other tribes) led by Boudicca or “Boadicea” in 61-62 AD.
The Romans held England for almost four centuries, never venturing much
into Wales and kept out of Scotland by the Picts, before their presence
weakened and by the 5th century they had left.
1.2.The Anglo-Saxons, Celts, Vikings and the Dark Ages.
The dark Ages were times when history was oral, and the local Celts and
the Anglo-Saxons and Viking invaders all used songs, sagas and oral
poetry to record and retell events. Much became lost; of what remains,
there is a complex mix of history, legend and myth, King Arthur and
knights being just one example of inadequate historical source evidence.
What is now England was progressively settled by successive and often
complementary waves of Germanic tribesmen. Among them the Angles, Saxons
and Jutes together with many other tribes who had been partly displaced
on mainland Europe. Increasingly the Celtics population was pushed
westwards and northwards. The settlement of England is known as the
Saxon Conquest or the Anglo-Saxon settlement.
In the decisive Battle of Deorham, in 577, the Celtic people of
Southern Britain were separated into the South-West nation of Cornwall
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