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НазваGastritis (гастрит) (реферат)
АвторPetya
РозділІноземна мова, реферати англійською, німецькою
ФорматWord Doc
Тип документуРеферат
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Gastritis (гастрит)

 

 

Contents

 

1 Causes and Treatment

 

1.1 Acute

 

1.2 Chronic

 

1.2.1 Metaplasia

 

1.2.2 Helicobacter pylori

 

1.3 Treatment

 

2 Symptoms

 

3 Diagnosis

 

4 References

 

5 See also

 

 

Gastritis is an inflammation of the lining of the stomach, and has many

possible causes.[1] The main acute causes are excessive alcohol

consumption or prolonged use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

(also known as NSAIDs) such as aspirin or ibuprofen. Sometimes gastritis

develops after major surgery, traumatic injury, burns, or severe

infections. Gastritis may also occur in those who have had weight loss

surgery resulting in the banding or reconstruction of the digestive

tract. Chronic causes are infection with bacteria, primarily

Helicobacter pylori. Certain diseases, such as pernicious anemia,

chronic bile reflux, and certain autoimmune disorders can cause

gastritis as well. The most common symptom is abdominal upset or pain.

Other symptoms are indigestion, abdominal bloating, nausea, and

vomiting. Some may have a feeling of fullness or burning in the upper

abdomen.[2][3] A gastroscopy, blood test, complete blood count test, or

a stool test may be used to diagnose gastritis.[4] Treatment includes

taking antacids or other medicines, such as proton pump inhibitors or

antibiotics, or avoiding hot or spicy foods. For those with pernicious

anemia, B12 injections are given.[5]

 

Acute

 

Erosive gastritis is gastric mucosal erosion caused by damage to mucosal

defenses.[2] Alcohol consumption does not cause chronic gastritis. It

does, however, erode the mucosal lining of the stomach; low doses of

alcohol stimulate hydrochloric acid secretion. High doses of alcohol do

not stimulate secretion of acid.[6] NSAIDs inhibit cyclooxygenase-1, or

COX-1, an enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of eicosanoids in the

stomach, which increases the possibility of peptic ulcers to form.[7]

Also, NSAIDs, such as aspirin, reduce a substance that protects the

stomach called prostaglandin. These drugs used in a short period of time

are not typically dangerous. However, regular use can lead to

gastritis.[8]

 

Chronic

 

If the cardiac sphincter fails to do its job properly, some stomach acid

can escape up the esophagus. This causes very painful "heartburn" or

"gastritis" in the chest as the esophageal walls are eroded by the

hydrochloric acid. Chronic gastritis refers to a wide range of problems

of the gastric tissues that are mainly the result of H. pylori

infection.[2] The immune system makes proteins and antibodies that fight

infections in the body to maintain a homeostatic condition. In some

disorders, the body accidentally targets the stomach, believing it is a

foreign protein or pathogen. It makes antibodies against, severely

damages, and may even destroy the stomach and/or its lining.[8] In some

cases, bile, normally used to aid digestion in the small intestine, will

enter through the pyloric valve of the stomach, because it had been

removed during surgery or may not work properly. This also leads to

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